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Aircraft Configuration Files

Aircraft Configuration Files

Overview

The aircraft configuration file (aircraft.cfg) represents the highest level of organization within an aircraft container. Each aircraft has its own configuration file located in its container (aircraft folder). For example, the Diamond DA42 aircraft.cfg can be found at

SimObjects\Aircraft\Diamond_DA42\aircraft.cfg

The aircraft.cfg file specifies the versions of the aircraft included in the aircraft container, as well as the attributes (name, color, sound, panels, gauges, and so on) for each aircraft and where to find the files that define those attributes. Within the aircraft.cfg file there are a number of sections. Brackets enclosing the section name identify the various sections. In order for the simulation to make proper use of any variable, it is important that the variable be located in the correct section. While exact spelling is important, none of the terms are case-sensitive.


See Also

Testing Changes to the aircraft.cfg file

To see the effects of a change, the flight must be restarted, the quickest way to do this is to . 
 
Any errors made in creating or editing the aircraft.cfg file will show up, along with the following error messages, while an aircraft is being loaded. The error messages are listed in order; that is, the first error message represents an error early in the aircraft-loading process.

Error Message Description
Aircraft initialization failure.  Indicates that some essential files are missing from the aircraft container. If the files are missing, the aircraft will not usually be displayed in the Aircraft Selection Screen; as a result, this error is rare.
Failed to start up the flight model. The .air file was not loaded successfully.
This is not a Flight Simulator aircraft model.  The visual model (.mdl) file for this aircraft is not compatible with Flight Sim World
Visual model could not be displayed.  An error occurred while loading the visual model (.mdl) file.
      

Datum Reference Point

Positions of aircraft components are given relative to the datum reference point for the aircraft, in the order: longitudinal, lateral, vertical. The convention for positions is positive equals forward, to the right, and vertically upward. Units are in feet.

The datum reference point itself is specified in the weight_and_balance section.

 


Sections of the Configuration File



New and Changed for Flight Sim World

The following sections contain and newly added, changed or removed items for Flight Sim World. They are also included in the main body of the document with a red text highlight. 

[fltsim.n]

Property
Description
Examples
atc_id_colorThis is the colour which will be used to render the tail number. This is a hexadecimal number using ARGB format. E.g atc_id_color=0xFF0FF00 for pure green.
atc_id_fontThis is the font name used for rendering the tail number. The font name must correspond to an entry in Fonts/fonts.json file. atc_id_font="ARIAL BLACK" 
atc_id_render_target_width This is the width of the render target which will be created to render the tail number. Note that AI aircraft will have this size divided by 2 (e.g. 512)atc_id_render_target_width=1024
ui_thumbnailfilePath to the livery specific image to display as a thumbnail in the UI. 600x240 as PNG or JPEG.ui_thumbnailfile="texture.1\thumbnail.png"
ui_hangarfilePath to the livery specific image to display when the livery is selected in the livery selection screen. 1920x1080 as PNG or JPEG.ui_hangarfile="texture.1\hangar.png"
ui_selectionfilePath to the livery specific image to display as the background in the hangar when the aircraft is hovered over. 1920x1080 as PNG or JPEG.ui_selectionfile="texture.1\selection.png"
ui_tilefilePath to the livery specific image to display on the flight planner tile when the aircraft is selected. 210x44 as PNG or JPEG or the Hangar File can be reused here.ui_tilefile="texture.1\hangar.png"
ui_visibleIf this livery (not aircraft) is visible in the UI. Useful for hiding liveries only used for AI or missions.ui_visible=TRUE
ui_visible=FALSE
description  Removed 
visual_damage Removed 
prop_anim_ratio Removed 

[general]

Property
Description
Examples
 ai_selection_bias This should always be 0.0 ai_selection_bias=0.0
editable Removed 
performance Removed 

[weight_and_balance]

Property
Description
Examples
station_load.0
to
station_load.n
Specifies the weight and position of passengers or payload at a station specified with a unique number, station_load.N. Parameters in order are: active, Filled Weight (lbs), Max Weight (lbs),longitudinal, lateral, vertical positions from datum (feet), passenger index. Where long, lat and vertical positions are relative to the datum reference point. The addition of stations results in a corresponding change in aircraft flight dynamics due to the change of the total weight and moments of inertia. Active states if the payload has its filled weight by default before the payload amounts are adjusted. Usually Pilot (potentially also copilot) and some Baggage would be active by default on a GA aircraft.
For the passenger index the numbers are as follows:
-1 = Not a person (baggage etc)
0 = Pilot
1, 2 ,3 etc = Passengers, matching with those specified in the model.cfg for the aircraft.
station_load.0 = 1, 190, 350, -0.33, -0.90, 1.29, 0
station_load.3 = 0, 170, 350, -3.05, 0.90, 1.21, 3 
station_load.5 = 1, 50,100, -4.54, -0.69, 0.42, -1
station_name.0
to
station_name.n

This field is the string name that is used in the Payload dialog (15 character limit). Omission of this will result in a generic station name being used. Note that if passed a translation string e.g @IDS_ST_PILOT only the string ID is limited to 15 characters not the translated result.

 

station_name.0 = "Payload"
station_name.1 = "@IDS_ST_PILOT" 
station_name.0 = "Pilot"
station_name.7 = "Forward Baggage"

[UI Strings]
This section is newly added and contains strings which are used within the User Interface, mostly on the Aircraft Selection screen.

Property
Description
Examples
engine_descA short description of the engine of the aircraft. This should fit on one line under the "Engine" heading on the aircraft selection screen. It can be a translation string if required (@IDS_SOMETHING).engine_desc = "Lycoming IO-360-M1A 180hp @ 2700 rpm"
prop_desc A short description of the propeller (if applicable) for the aircraft. This should fit on one line under the "Propeller" heading on the aircraft selection screen. It can be a translation string if required (@IDS_SOMETHING). If not applicable for an aircraft use "--".  prop_desc ="MT 3 blade, constant speed"
crew_passA string for the amount of crew and passengers the aircraft can have. E.g "1+3, 2+2" for the DA42 which can have 1 crew (pilot) and 3 passengers or 2 crew (pilot+copilot) and 2 passengers.  crew_pass="1+1"
short_desc A short description of the aircraft to be displayed when the aircraft is selected on the flight planner tile. Should be only a few words, e.g "Innovative, state-of-the-art design" or "Popular two-seat, single-engine monoplane". Can be a translation string (@IDS_SOMETHING) if required. short_desc="@IDS_SHORT_DESC_RV7A"
 short_desc="Popular two-seat, single-engine monoplane"


[Other Reference]
This section is newly added and contains reference speeds and distances used in the aircraft specification panel on the aircraft selection screen.
Property
Description
Examples
 range Estimated range of the aircraft in nautical miles. This is just for reference on the aircraft selection screen, it will not be used in any flight dynamics calculations. range = 695 
 rate_of_climb Estimated rate of climb in feet per minute. This is just for reference on the aircraft selection screen, it will not be used in any flight dynamics calculations. rate_of_climb = 831
 takeoff_distance Estimated takeoff distance over a 50ft obstacle, in feet. This is just for reference on the aircraft selection screen, it will not be used in any flight dynamics calculations. takeoff_distance = 1600
 landing_distance Estimated landing distance over a 50ft obstacle, in feet. This is just for reference on the aircraft selection screen, it will not be used in any flight dynamics calculations. landing_distance = 1525
 ceiling Estimated service ceiling of the aircraft, in feet. This is just for reference on the aircraft selection screen, it will not be used in any flight dynamics calculations. ceiling = 18000
 fuel_capacity Reference fuel capacity of the aircraft, in US gallons. This is just for reference on the aircraft selection screen, it will not be used in any flight dynamics calculations. fuel_capacity = 79.4
 fuel_consumption_at_cruise Estimated fuel consumption at cruise of the aircraft, in US Gallons Per Hour. This is just for reference on the aircraft selection screen and for calculating estimated endurance to be displayed on the pause screen, it will not be used in any flight dynamics calculations. fuel_consumption_at_cruise = 13

[Accufeel]
This section is newly added and contains parameters to adjust the impact of Accu-Feel™ on the aircraft. It allows each aircraft to be tuned with custom parameters for Accu-Feel™. 
Property
Description
Examples
 AccufeelOn Master on/off for Accu-Feel™ on the aircraft. AccuFeelOn = 1
 MasterVolume Master volume of Accu-Feel™ for this aircraft. MasterVolume = 75
 GlobalTurbulenceStrength  GlobalTurbulenceStrength = 50
 GlobalTurbulenceVolume  GlobalTurbulenceVolume = 50
 OpenCockpit If the aircraft has an open cockpit. OpenCockpit = 0
 AircraftVolume  AircraftVolume = 75
 StallAoA  StallAoA = 16
 Stall_Instability  Stall_Instability = 40
 MaxMach Max mach (Vne) of the aircraft. MaxMach = 0.281
 MaxIAS Max IAS (Vne) of the aircraft. MaxIAS = 188
 WindVolume  WindVolume = 40
 PropVolume  PropVolume = 50
 DragRumble  DragRumble = 35
 Chop  Chop = 30
 Gusts  Gusts = 40
 ClearAirTurbulence  ClearAirTurbulence = 40
 CabinIntegrity  CabinIntegrity = 85
 ShockAbsorption  ShockAbsorption = 80
 BrakeSqueal  BrakeSqueal = 12
 TireScreech  TireScreech = 60
 TireSideForces  TireSideForces = 35
 WaterDrag  WaterDrag = 50
 AutoWaves  AutoWaves = 1
 WaveSize  WaveSize = 25
 WaveSpeed  WaveSpeed = 50

Model.cfg

The model.cfg section at the end of this document has been updated for Flight Sim World and should be read in full.

Additional Sections

[antidetonation system.n]

Property
Description
Examples
reservoir_size Gallons. reservoir_size = 4
flow_rate Gallons per minute. flow_rate = 3.
reservoir_position Position relative to datum reference point . reservoir_position = -1.8, 4.1, -1.8
max_mp_compensate Manifold pressure above which AntiDetonation system cannot compensate for. Units are inches of mercury. max_mp_compensate = 135

[nitrous system.n]

Property
Description
Examples
reservoir_size Gallons reservoir_size=10.0
flow_rate Gallons per minute flow_rate=5.0
mp_boost Multiplier on manifold pressure mp_boost=1.75

[tailhook]

Property
Description
Examples
tailhook_length Length of tailhook in feet. tailhook_length = 4.5
tailhook_position Tailhook pivot point relative to datum reference point . tailhook_position = -49.0, 0, -2.5

[voicealerts]

Property
Description
Examples
lowfuelpct Three values: Low Fuel limit (percent), check above (1) or below (-1), and check every N seconds. LowFuelPct = 0.1, -1, 60
overglimit High G limit, check above (1) or below (-1), and check every N seconds. OverGLimit = 6.0, 1, 1 )

 


Standard Sections

[fltsim.n]

Each [fltsim.n] section of an aircraft configuration file represents a different version (configuration) of the aircraft, and is known as a configuration set. Configuration sets allow a single aircraft container to represent several aircraft, and allow those aircraft to share components.

If there is only one section (labeled [fltsim.0]), it is because there is only one configuration set in that aircraft container. If there is more than one configuration set (labeled [fltsim.0], [fltsim.1], [fltsim.2], and so on), each one refers to a different version of the aircraft.

For instance, there are several versions of the Diamond DA42, all housed in the same DA42 aircraft container (folder). The various versions must vary by their title, and may also vary other items such as the panel, description, and sounds.

While these configuration sets share many components, they can each use different panels. The panel= line in the respective fltsim sections thus refer to the respective panel folder for each aircraft:  For example, panel=g1000 means that this version of the DA42 uses the panel files in the panel.g1000 subfolder.

When creating and referencing multiple model, panel, sound, and texture directories, use the naming convention foldername.extension, where the extension is a unique identifier for that configuration set (for example, .g1000). To refer to the folder from the relevant parameter in the aircraft.cfg file, just specify the extension (for example, panel=g1000). If a parameter is not explicitly set it automatically refers to the default (extension-less) folder.

The parameters in each configuration set can refer to the same files, to different files, or to a mix of files. While using different panels, all DA42 configurations use the same sounds, and thus the sound parameters in all the fltsim sections point to the single sound folder in the DA42 folder.

Each aircraft defined by a configuration set will appear as a separate listing in the Aircraft livery screen. From a user’s perspective, they are distinct aircraft (just as if all the common files were duplicated and included in three distinct aircraft containers). From a developer’s perspective, the aircraft are really just different configuration sets of the same aircraft. Because they share some files, they make much more efficient use of disk space.

Within each [fltsim.n] section are parameters that define the details of that particular configuration set:

Property
Description
Examples
title The title of the aircraft. Diamond DA42 ( title=Diamond DA42 Twin Star )
Piper PA28( title=Piper PA-28 Cherokee 180 )

sim Specifies which .air (flight model) file (located in the aircraft folder) to use. Diamond DA42 ( sim=DA42 )
Piper PA28 ( sim=Piper_PA28_180)
model Specifies which model folder to reference. If no entry is made, the default folder is used. Diamond DA42 ( model= )
panel Specifies which panel folder to reference. Diamond DA42 ( panel= )
sound Specifies which sound folder to reference. Diamond DA42 ( sound= )
texture Specifies which texture folder to reference. Diamond DA42 ( texture=2)
Piper PA28 ( texture= )
kb_checklists Deprecated, leave blank. kb_checklists=
kb_reference Deprecated, leave blank. kb_reference= 
atc_id The tail number displayed on the exterior of the aircraft. Note that custom tail numbers burned into textures will not be modified by this. Diamond DA42( atc_id="N42DA" )
atc_id_color This is the colour which will be used to render the tail number. This is a hexadecimal number using ARGB format.  E.g atc_id_color=0xFF0FF00 for pure green.
atc_id_font This is the font name used for rendering the tail number. The font name must correspond to an entry in Fonts/fonts.json file.  atc_id_font="ARIAL BLACK" 
atc_id_render_target_width  This is the width of the render target which will be created to render the tail number. Note that AI aircraft will have this size divided by 2 (e.g. 512) atc_id_render_target_width=1024
atc_airline The ATC system will use the specified airline name with this aircraft. This is dependant on ATC recognizing the name. ATC will treat this aircraft as an airliner when this is used in conjunction with atc_flight_number. atc_airline="Airline Name"
atc_flight_number The ATC system will use this number as part of the aircrafts callsign. ATC will treat this aircraft as an airliner when this is used in conjunction with atc_airline. atc_flight_number=1123
ui_manufacturer This value identifies the manufacturer sub-category used to group aircraft in the select aircraft dialog inside Flight Sim World. ui_manufacturer="Diamond" 
ui_manufacturer="Piper"
ui_type This value identifies the type sub-category used to group aircraft in the select aircraft dialog inside Flight Sim World. ui_type=DA42 Twin Star
ui_variation This value identifies the variation sub-category used to group aircraft in the select aircraft dialog inside Flight Sim World. ui_variation="@IDS_AIRCRAFT_LIVERY_TYPE_STRIPE_2"
ui_typerole This value identifies the role of the aircraft. ui_typerole="@IDS_TYPE_TWIN_PROP"
ui_typerole="Commercial Airliner"
ui_createdby This value is used to identify the creator of the configuration file. ui_createdby="Dovetail Games"
ui_thumbnailfile Path to the livery specific image to display as a thumbnail in the UI. 600x240 as PNG or JPEG. ui_thumbnailfile="texture.1\thumbnail.png"
ui_hangarfile Path to the livery specific image to display when the livery is selected in the livery selection screen. 1920x1080 as PNG or JPEG. ui_hangarfile="texture.1\hangar.png"
ui_selectionfile Path to the livery specific image to display as the background in the hangar when the aircraft is hovered over. 1920x1080 as PNG or JPEG. ui_selectionfile="texture.1\selection.png"
ui_tilefile Path to the livery specific image to display on the flight planner tile when the aircraft is selected. 210x44 as PNG or JPEG or the Hangar File can be reused here. ui_tilefile="texture.1\hangar.png"
ui_visible If this livery (not aircraft) is visible in the UI. Useful for hiding liveries only used for AI or missions. ui_visible=TRUE
ui_visible=FALSE
atc_heavy Setting this flag to 1 will result in the ATC system appending the phrase heavy to the aircrafts callsign. atc_heavy=0
atc_heavy=1
atc_parking_types Specifies the preferred parking for this aircraft, used by ATC. If this line is omitted, ATC will determine parking according to the type of aircraft and parking available. If multiple values are listed, preference will be given in the order in which they are listed. The valid values may be one or more of the following: RAMP, CARGO, GATE, DOCK, MIL_CARGO, MIL_COMBAT. atc_parking_types=RAMP
atc_parking_types=CARGO
atc_parking_types=GATE,RAMP
atc_parking_codes Specifies one or more ICAO airline designations so that ATC can direct the aircraft to a gate that has also been designated specifically for that same airline, for example, "DTA" for Dovetail Airlines.

Refer to the example XML for the TaxiwayParking entry in the Compiling BGL document. The codes entered in the airlineCodes entry should match the text entered here. The ICAO codes do not have to be used, and can be as short as one character, as long as the text strings match, but for clarity use of the ICAO codes is recommended.

If mutliple parking codes are entered, separate them with commas.


[general]

In addition to the fltsim sections, the general section contains information related to all variations of the aircraft. For example, the Cessna 182RG, 182S, and 182S IFR are all the same type of aircraft, and contain the same flight model. As such, there are some things that are not variable across variations:

Property
Description
Examples
atc_type This is the specific aircraft type that the ATC system recognizes for this type of aircraft. atc_type=Piper
atc_type=Diamond
atc_model This is the specific aircraft model that the ATC system recognizes for this type of aircraft. Note: atc_type + atc_model when combined should be unique to an aircraft. atc_model=PA28
atc_model=DA42
atc_model=P28R
category For aircraft, one of airplane or helicopter. Category = airplane
Category = Helicopter
 ai_selection_bias  This should always be 0.0  ai_selection_bias=0.0

[pitot_static]

The vertical_speed_time_constant parameter can be used to tune the lag of the Vertical Speed Indicator for the aircraft:

  • Increasing the time constant decreases the lag, making the gauge react more quickly.
  • Decreasing the time constant increases the lag, making the gauge react more slowly.
  • A value of 0 effectively causes the indication to freeze. If an instantaneous indication is desired, use an excessively large value, such as 99.
  • If the line is omitted, the default value is 2.0.
Property
Description
Examples
vertical_speed_time_constant Increases or decreases the lag of the vertical speed indicator. Increasing will cause a more instantaneous reaction in the VSI. vertical_speed_time_constant = 1 
vertical_speed_time_constant = 1.0
vertical_speed_time_constant = 4
pitot_heat Scale of heat effectiveness, or 0 if not available. pitot_heat = 1.0
pitot_heat=0.000000
pitot_heat = 0.

[weight_and_balance]

The weight and center of gravity of the aircraft can be affected through the following parameters.

 

Note
In the stock aircraft, the station_load.0, 1, etc. parameters are enclosed in quotation marks.  These are used by internal language translation tools.

 

Moments of Inertia

A moment of inertia (MOI) defines the mass distribution about an axis of an aircraft. A moment of inertia for a particular axis is increased as mass is increased and/or as the given mass is distributed farther from the axis. This is largely what determines the inertial characteristics of the aircraft.

The following weight and balance parameters define the MOIs of the empty aircraft, so the values should not reflect fuel, passengers or baggage. The simulation engine determines the total MOIs with these additional, and variable, influences. The units are slugs per foot squared. Omission of a parameter will result in the use of a default value set in the .air file, if one exists.
These values can be estimated with the following formula:
  • MOI = EmptyWeight * (D^2 / K)
Where:
Pitch Roll Yaw
D =  Length (feet) Wingspan (feet)   0.5* (Length+Wingspan)
K = 810 1870 770

This formula yields only rough estimates. Actual values vary based on aircraft material, installed equipment, and number of engines and their positions.

Property
Description
Examples
max_gross_weight Maximum design gross weight of the aircraft. max_gross_weight = 150000 
max_gross_weight= 600.000 
max_gross_weight = 875000 
max_gross_weight = 5524
empty_weight Total weight (in pounds) of the aircraft minus usable fuel, passengers, and cargo. If not specified, the value previously set in the .air file will be used. empty_weight = 74170 
empty_weight= 310.000 
empty_weight = 394088 
empty_weight = 3911
reference_datum_position Offset (in feet) of the aircraft's reference datum from the standard Flight Sim World center point, which is on the centerline chord aft of the leading edge. By setting the Reference Datum Position, actual aircraft loading data can be used directly according to the aircraft's manufacturer. If not specified, the default is 0,0,0. reference_datum_position= 0.000, 0.000, 0.000 
reference_datum_position = 83.5, 0, 0 
reference_datum_position = 6.96, 0, 0
empty_weight_cg_position Offset (in feet) of the center of gravity of the basic empty aircraft (no fuel, passengers, or baggage) from the datum reference point . empty_weight_CG_position= 0.000, 0.000, 0.000 
empty_weight_CG_position = -90.5, 0, 0 
empty_weight_CG_position = -6.06, 0, 0
max_number_of_stations Specifies the maximum number of stations Flight Sim World will calculate when the aircraft is loaded. This allows an unlimited number of stations to be specified. Note that an excessively large number here results in a longer load time for the aircraft when selected, although there is no effect on real-time performance. max_number_of_stations = 50 
station_load.0
to
station_load.n
Specifies the weight and position of passengers or payload at a station specified with a unique number, station_load.N. Parameters in order are: active, Filled Weight (lbs), Max Weight (lbs),longitudinal, lateral, vertical positions from datum (feet), passenger index. Where long, lat and vertical positions are relative to the datum reference point. The addition of stations results in a corresponding change in aircraft flight dynamics due to the change of the total weight and moments of inertia. Active states if the payload has its filled weight by default before the payload amounts are adjusted. Usually Pilot (potentially also copilot) and some Baggage would be active by default on a GA aircraft.
For the passenger index the numbers are as follows:
-1 = Not a person (baggage etc)
0 = Pilot
1, 2 ,3 etc = Passengers, matching with those specified in the model.cfg for the aircraft.
station_load.0 = 1, 190, 350, -0.33, -0.90, 1.29, 0
station_load.3 = 0, 170, 350, -3.05, 0.90, 1.21, 3
station_load.5 = 1, 50,100, -4.54, -0.69, 0.42, -1
station_name.0
to
station_name.n

This field is the string name that is used in the Payload dialog (15 character limit). Omission of this will result in a generic station name being used. Note that if passed a translation string e.g @IDS_ST_PILOT only the string ID is limited to 15 characters not the translated result.

 

station_name.0 = "Payload"
station_name.1 = "@IDS_ST_PILOT" 
station_name.0 = "Pilot"
station_name.7 = "Forward Baggage"
empty_weight_pitch_moi The moment of inertia (MOI) about the lateral axis. empty_weight_pitch_MOI = 3172439 
empty_weight_pitch_MOI= 230.000 
empty_weight_pitch_MOI = 24223159 
empty_weight_pitch_MOI = 3905.65
empty_weight_roll_moi The moment of inertia (MOI) about the longitudinal axis. empty_weight_roll_MOI = 2262183 
empty_weight_roll_MOI= 205.000 
empty_weight_roll_MOI = 13352310 
empty_weight_roll_MOI = 2718.64
empty_weight_yaw_moi The moment of inertia (MOI) about the vertical axis. empty_weight_yaw_MOI = 3337024 
empty_weight_yaw_MOI= 290.000 
empty_weight_yaw_MOI = 39531785 
empty_weight_yaw_MOI = 5291.04
empty_weight_coupled_moi The moment of inertia (MOI) about the roll and yaw axis (usually zero). empty_weight_coupled_MOI = 0 
empty_weight_coupled_MOI= 0.000 
empty_weight_coupled_MOI= 0.0 
empty_weight_coupled_MOI = 0.0

[flight_tuning]

Flight control effectiveness parameters

The elevator, aileron and elevator effectiveness parameters are multipliers on the default power of the control surfaces. For example, a value of 1.1 increases the effectiveness by 10 percent. Likewise, a value of 0.9 decreases the effectiveness by 10 percent. A negative number reverses the normal effect of the control. Omission of a parameter results in the default value of 1.0.

Stability parameters

The pitch, roll and yaw parameters are multipliers on the default stability (damping effect) about the corresponding axis of the airplane. For example, a value of 1.1 increases the damping by 10%. Likewise, a value of 0.9 decreases the damping by 10%. A negative number results in an unstable characteristic about the axis. A positive damping effect is simply a moment in the direction opposite of the rotational velocity. Omission of a parameter will result in the default value of 1.0.

Lift parameter

The cruise_lift_scalar parameter is a multiplier on the coefficient of lift at zero angle of attack Cruise lift in this context refers to the lift at relatively small angles of attack, which is typical for an airplane in a cruise condition. This scaling is decreased linearly as angle of attack moves toward the critical (stall) angle of attack, which prevents destabilizing low speed and stall characteristics at high angles of attack. Modify this value to set the angle of attack (and thus pitch) for a cruise condition. A negative value is not advised, as this will result in extremely unnatural flight characteristics. Omission of this parameter results in the default value of 1.0.

High Angle of Attack parameters

The hi_alpha_on_roll and hi_alpha_on_yaw  parameters are multipliers on the effects on roll and yaw at high angles of attack.  The default values are 1.0.

Propeller-induced turning effect parameters

The p_factor_on_yaw, torque_on_roll, gyro_precession_on_pitch and gyro_precession_on_yaw parameters are multipliers on the effects induced by rotating propellers. These are often called “left turning tendencies” for clockwise rotating propellers. The simulation correctly handles counter-clockwise rotating propellers. The default values are 1.0.

Drag parameters

Drag is the aerodynamic force that determines the aircraft speed and acceleration. There are two basic types of drag that the user can adjust here. Parasitic drag is composed of two basic elements: form drag, which results from the interference of streamlined airflow, and skin friction. Parasite drag increases as airspeed increases. Induced drag results from the production of lift. Induced drag increases as angle of attack increases.

The parasite_drag_scalar and induced_drag_scalar parameters are multipliers on the two respective drag coefficients. For example, a value of 1.1 increases the respective drag component by 10 percent. A value of 0.9 decreases the drag by 10 Percent. Negative values are not advised, as extremely unnatural flight characteristics will result.  The default values are 1.0.

Property
Description
Examples
cruise_lift_scalar CL0. cruise_lift_scalar = 1.0 
cruise_lift_scalar=1.000
parasite_drag_scalar Cd0. parasite_drag_scalar = 1.0 
parasite_drag_scalar=1.000
induced_drag_scalar Cdi. induced_drag_scalar = 1.0 
induced_drag_scalar=1.000
elevator_effectiveness Cmde. elevator_effectiveness = 1.0 
elevator_effectiveness=1.000
aileron_effectiveness Clda. aileron_effectiveness = 1.0 
aileron_effectiveness=1.000
rudder_effectiveness Cndr. rudder_effectiveness = 1.0 
rudder_effectiveness=0.501
pitch_stability Cmq. pitch_stability = 1.0 
pitch_stability=1.000
roll_stability Clp. roll_stability = 1.0 
roll_stability=1.000
yaw_stability Cnr. yaw_stability = 1.0 
yaw_stability=1.000
elevator_trim_effectiveness Cmdetr. elevator_trim_effectiveness = 1.0 
elevator_trim_effectiveness=1.000
aileron_trim_effectiveness Cldatr. aileron_trim_effectiveness = 1.0 
aileron_trim_effectiveness=1.000
rudder_trim_effectiveness Cndrtr. rudder_trim_effectiveness = 1.0 
rudder_trim_effectiveness=1.000
hi_alpha_on_roll See notes above.
hi_alpha_on_yaw
p_factor_on_yaw See notes above. p_factor_on_yaw = 0.5 
p_factor_on_yaw = 0.3
torque_on_roll torque_on_roll = 1.0 
torque_on_roll = 0.5 
torque_on_roll = 0.3
gyro_precession_on_yaw See notes above. gyro_precession_on_yaw = 1.0 
gyro_precession_on_yaw = 0.3
gyro_precession_on_pitch gyro_precession_on_pitch = 1.0 
gyro_precession_on_pitch = 0.3

[generalenginedata]

Every type of aircraft, even a glider, should have this section in the aircraft.cfg file.  Basically, this section describes the type of engine, the number of engines, where the engines are located, and a fuel flow scalar to modify how much fuel the engine requires to produce the calculated power.

Property
Description
Examples
engine_type Integer that identifies what type of engine is on the aircraft. 0 = piston, 1 = Jet, 2 = None, 3 = Helo-turbine, 4 = Rocket (not supported) 5 = Turboprop. engine_type = 1 
engine_type= 0 
engine_type = 0 
engine_type = 5
engine.0
to
engine.n
Offset of the engine from the datum reference point. Each engine location specified increases the engine count (maximum of four engines allowed). Engine.0 = 4.75, -16.1, -4.5 
Engine.0= -3.000, 0.000, 2.000 
Engine.0 = -1.4, -5.3, 0.0 

Engine.0 = -107.5, -69.5, -6.9 
Engine.1 = -76.0, -38.9, -10.4 
Engine.2 = -76.0, 38.9, -10.4 
Engine.3 = -107.5, 69.5, -6.9 
fuel_flow_scalar Scalar for modifying the fuel flow required by the engine(s). A value of less than 1.0 causes a slower fuel consumption for a given power setting, a value greater than 1.0 causes the aircraft to burn more fuel for a given power setting. fuel_flow_scalar = 1 
fuel_flow_scalar= 1.000 
fuel_flow_scalar = 1.0 
fuel_flow_scalar= 0.9
min_throttle_limit Defines the minimum throttle position (percent of max). Normally 0 for piston aircraft and -0.25 for turbine airplane engines with reverse thrust. min_throttle_limit = -0.25 
min_throttle_limit=0.000000 
min_throttle_limit = -0.25; 
min_throttle_limit = 0.0;
max_contrail_temperature Ambient temperature, in celsius, in which engine vapor contrails will turn on. The default value is about -39 degrees celsius for turbine engines. For piston engines, the contrail effect is turned off unless a temperature value is set here. max_contrail_temperature = -30
master_ignition_switch 1=Available, 0=Not Available (default). If available, this switch must be on for the ignition circuit, and thus the engines, to be operable. Turning it off will stop all engines. master_ignition_switch = 1
starter_type Set to 1 for a Manual Starter starter_type = 1
thrustanglepitchheading.0 Thrust pitch and heading angles in degrees ( positive pitch down, positive heading right). ThrustAnglePitchHeading.0 = 0,0

[turbineenginedata]

A turbine engine ignites fuel and compressed air to create thrust.  These parameters define the power (thrust) output of a given jet turbine engine.

Property
Description
Examples
fuel_flow_gain Fuel flow gain constant. fuel_flow_gain = 0.002 
fuel_flow_gain = 0.002 
fuel_flow_gain = 0.011 
fuel_flow_gain = 0.0025
inlet_area Engine nacelle inlet area, (in square feet). inlet_area = 19.6 
inlet_area = 60.0 
inlet_area = 1.0 
inlet_area = 9.4
rated_n2_rpm Second stage compressor rated rpm. rated_N2_rpm = 29920 
rated_N2_rpm = 29920 
rated_N2_rpm = 33000
static_thrust Maximum rated static thrust at sea level (lbs). static_thrust = 23500 
static_thrust = 56750 
static_thrust = 158 
static_thrust = 12670

afterburner_available

 

 

 

afterburner_available

Boolean value to indicate if an afterburner is available; 0 = FALSE, 1 = TRUE.

 

This has been extended to take a number, indicating the number of afterburner stages available.

 

afterburner_available = 0 

afterburner_available = 6 

reverser_available Specifies the scalar on the calculated reverse thrust effect. A value of 0 will cause no reverse thrust to be available. A value of 1.0 will cause the theoretical normal reverse thrust to be available. Other values will scale the normal calculated value accordingly. reverser_available = 1 
reverser_available = 0
thrustspecificfuelconsumption Jet thrust specific fuel consumption. The ratio of fuel used in pounds per hour, to thrust in pounds. Applies at all speeds. ThrustSpecificFuelConsumption = 0.6 
ThrustSpecificFuelConsumption = 0.4
afterburnthrustspecificfuelconsumption Jet thrust specific fuel consumption. The ratio of fuel used in pounds per hour, to thrust in pounds. Applies only when the afterburner is active.

AfterBurnThrustSpecificFuelConsumption = 0

AfterBurnThrustSpecificFuelConsumption = 0.5 

afterburner_throttle_threshold Percentage of throttle range when the afterburner engages. afterburner_throttle_threshold = 0.76 

[jet_engine]

The thrust_scalar parameter scales the calculated thrust for jet engines (thrust taken from the [TurbineEngineData] section).
Property
Description
Examples
thrust_scalar Parameter that scales the calculated thrust provided by the propeller. thrust_scalar = 1.0

[electrical]

These parameters configure the characteristics of the aircraft's electrical system and its components. Each aircraft has a battery as well as an alternator or generator for each engine.

Below is a table of electrical section parameters shown with default values for Bus Type, Max Amp Load and Min Voltage (the values applied if the parameters are omitted). The default Min Voltage equals 0.7*Max Battery Voltage. The list of components also reflects all of the systems currently linked to the electrical system. If a component is included in the list but the aircraft does not actually have that system, the component is simply ignored.
Bus Type
Specifies which bus in the electrical system the component is connected to, according to the following bus type codes:

Bus Type Bus
0 Main Bus (most components connected here)
1 Avionics Bus
2 Battery Bus
3 Hot Battery Bus (bypasses Master switch)
4 Generator/Alternator Bus 1 (function of engine 1)
5 Generator/Alternator Bus 2 (function of engine 2)
6 Generator/Alternator Bus 3 (function of engine 3)
7 Generator/Alternator Bus 4 (function of engine 4)

Max Amp Load

Max Amp Load is the current required to power the component, and of course becomes the additional load on the electrical system.

Min Voltage

Min Voltage is the minimum voltage required from the specified bus for the component to function.

 

Property
Description
Examples
flap_motor Bus type, max amp, min voltage flap_motor = 0, 5 , 17.0
gear_motor Bus type, max amp, min voltage gear_motor = 0, 5 , 17.0
autopilot Bus type, max amp, min voltage autopilot = 0, 5 , 17.0
avionics_bus Bus type, max amp, min voltage avionics_bus = 0, 5, 17.0 
avionics_bus = 0, 5 , 17.0 
avionics_bus = 0, 5 , 9.5
avionics Bus type, max amp, min voltage avionics = 1, 5 , 17.0 
avionics = 1, 5 , 9.5
pitot_heat Bus type, max amp, min voltage pitot_heat = 0, 2 , 17.0
additional_system Bus type, max amp, min voltage additional_system = 0, 2, 17.0 
additional_system = 0, 2 , 17.0 
additional_system = 0, 2 , 9.5
marker_beacon Bus type, max amp, min voltage marker_beacon = 1, 2 , 17.0 
marker_beacon = 1, 2 , 9.0
gear_warning Bus type, max amp, min voltage gear_warning = 0, 2 , 17.0
fuel_pump Bus type, max amp, min voltage fuel_pump = 0, 5 , 17.0 
fuel_pump = 0, 5 , 9.0
starter1 Bus type, max amp, min voltage starter1 = 0, 20, 17.0
starter2 Bus type, max amp, min voltage
starter3 Bus type, max amp, min voltage
starter4 Bus type, max amp, min voltage
light_nav Bus type, max amp, min voltage light_nav = 0, 5 , 17.0
light_beacon Bus type, max amp, min voltage light_beacon = 0, 5 , 17.0
light_landing Bus type, max amp, min voltage light_landing = 0, 5 , 17.0
light_taxi Bus type, max amp, min voltage light_taxi = 0, 5 , 17.0
light_strobe Bus type, max amp, min voltage light_strobe = 0, 5 , 17.0
light_panel Bus type, max amp, min voltage light_panel = 0, 5 , 17.0
light_cabin Bus type, max amp, min voltage
prop_sync Bus type, max amp, min voltage
auto_feather Bus type, max amp, min voltage
auto_brakes Bus type, max amp, min voltage
standby_vacuum Bus type, max amp, min voltage
hydraulic_pump Bus type, max amp, min voltage
fuel_transfer_pump Bus type, max amp, min voltage
propeller_deice Bus type, max amp, min voltage
light_recognition Bus type, max amp, min voltage
light_wing Bus type, max amp, min voltage
light_logo Bus type, max amp, min voltage
directional_gyro Bus type, max amp, min voltage
directional_gyro_slaving Bus type, max amp, min voltage
max_battery_voltage The maximum voltage to which the battery can be charged. It is also the voltage available from the battery when the aircraft is initialized. The battery voltage will decrease from this if the generators or alternators are not supplying enough current to meet the demand of the active components. max_battery_voltage = 24.0 
max_battery_voltage = 24 
max_battery_voltage = 12.0 
generator_alternator_voltage Voltage of the generators or alternators. generator_alternator_voltage = 28.0 
generator_alternator_voltage = 25.0 
generator_alternator_voltage = 28 
generator_alternator_voltage = 25
max_generator_alternator_amps Maximum generator/alternator amps. max_generator_alternator_amps = 60.0 
max_generator_alternator_amps = 40.0 
max_generator_alternator_amps = 50 
max_generator_alternator_amps = 100
engine_generator_map List of flags, corresponding to the number of engines, indicating whether there is a generator configured with the engine. engine_generator_map= 0,1,0 
electric_always_available Set to 1 if electric power is available regardless of the state of the battery or circuit.

[contact_points]

You can configure and adjust the way aircraft reacts to different kinds of contact, including landing gear contact and articulation, braking, steering, and damage accrued through excessive speed. You can also configure each contact point independently for each aircraft, and there is no limit to the number of points you can add. When importing an aircraft that does not contain this set of data, the program will generate the data from the .air file the first time the aircraft is loaded, and then write it to the aircraft.cfg.

Each contact point contains a series of values that define the characteristics of the point, separated by commas. A contact point has 16 parameters, described in the following table:

 

Contact Point Parameter (and example) Element Description
1  (1) Class Integer defining the type of contact point: 0 = None, 1 = Wheel, 2 = Scrape, 3 = Skid, 4 = Float, 5 = Water Rudder
2 (-18.0) Longitudinal Position The longitudinal distance of the point from the datum reference point.
3 (0) Lateral Position The lateral distance of the point from the datum reference point.
4 (-3.35) Vertical Position The vertical distance of the point from the datum reference point.
5 (3200) Impact Damage Threshold The speed at which an impact with the ground can cause damage (feet/min).
6 (0) Brake Map Defines which brake input drives the brake (wheels only).
0 = None, 1 = Left Brake, 2 = Right Brake.
7 (0.50) Wheel Radius Radius of the wheel (feet).
8 (180) Steering Angle The maximum angle (positive and negative) that a wheel can pivot (degrees).
9 (0.25) Static Compression This is the distance a landing gear is compressed when the empty aircraft is at rest on the ground (feet). This term defines the “strength” of the strut, where a smaller number will increase the “stiffness” of the strut.
10 (2.5) Ratio of Maximum Compression to Static Compression Ratio of the max dynamic compression available in the strut to the static value. Can be useful in coordinating the “compression” of the strut when landing.
11 (0.90) Damping Ratio This ratio describes how well the ground reaction oscillations are damped. A value of 1.0 is considered critically damped, meaning there will be little or no osciallation. A damping ratio of 0.0 is considered undamped, meaning that the oscillations will continue with a constant magnitude. Negative values result in an unstable ground handling situation, and values greater than 1.0 might also cause instabilities by being “over” damped. Typical values range from 0.6 to 0.95.
12 (1.0) Extension Time The amount of time it takes the landing gear to fully extend under normal conditions (seconds). A value of zero indicates a fixed gear.
13 (4.0) Retraction Time The amount of time it takes the landing gear to fully retract under normal conditions (seconds). A value of zero indicates a fixed gear.
14 (0) Sound Type This integer value will map a point to a type of sound:
    0 = Center Gear,
    1 = Auxiliary Gear,
    2 = Left Gear,
    3 = Right Gear,
    4 = Fuselage Scrape,
    5 = Left Wing Scrape,
    6 = Right Wing Scrape,
    7 = Aux1 Scrape,
    8 = Aux2 Scrape,
    9 = Tail Scrape.
15 (0) Airspeed Limit This is the speed at which landing gear extension becomes inhibited (knots). Not used for scrape points or non-retractable gear.
16 (200) Damage from Airspeed The speed above which the landing gear accrues damage (knots). Not used for scrape points or non-retractable gear.

 

Each contact point's data set takes the form “point.n=”, where “n” is the index to the particular point, followed by the data.

 

Property
Description
Examples
point.0
to
point.n
Contact points that match the format described above. point.0=1, 40.00, 0.00, -8.40, 1181.1, 0, 1.442, 55.92, 0.6, 2.5, 0.9, 4.0, 4.0, 0, 220.0, 250.0 
point.0= 1.000, 2.583, 0.000, -1.000, 1574.803, 0.000, 0.504, 31.860, 0.235, 2.500, 0.731, 0.000, 0.000, 0.000, 0.000, 0.000 
point.0 = 1, 0.82, 0.00, -3.77, 1600, 0, 0.633, 40, 0.42, 4.0, 0.90, 3.0, 3.0, 0, 152, 180 

point.0 = 1, -25.0, 0.0, -17.5, 1000.0, 0, 2.0, 70.0, 0.5, 3.5, 0.900, 9.0, 8.0, 0, 220, 250 
point.1 = 1, -114.0, -18.0, -21.3, 2000.0, 1, 2.0, 13.0, 3.0, 2.5, 0.900, 11.0, 9.0, 2, 220, 250 
point.2 = 1, -114.0, 18.0, -21.3, 2000.0, 2, 2.0, 13.0, 3.0, 2.5, 0.900, 11.0, 9.0, 3, 220, 250 
point.3 = 2, -152.6, -103.5, 3.0, 700.0, 0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.000, 0.0, 0.0, 5, 0, 0 
point.4 = 2, -152.6, 103.5, 3.0, 700.0, 0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.000, 0.0, 0.0, 6, 0, 0 
point.5 = 2, 3.0, 0.0, 0.0, 700.0, 0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.000, 0.0, 0.0, 9, 0, 0 
point.6 = 2, -222.7, 0.0, 4.0, 700.0, 0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.000, 0.0, 0.0, 4, 0, 0 

max_number_of_points Integer value indicating the maximum number of contact points the program will look for. max_number_of_points = 21
static_pitch The static pitch of the aircraft when at rest on the ground (degrees). The program uses this value to position the aircraft at startup, in slew, and at any other time when the simulation is not actively running. static_pitch=0.04
static_pitch= 0.000 
static_pitch = -1.5 
static_pitch = 1.56
static_cg_height The static height of the aircraft when at rest on the ground (feet). The program uses this value to position the aircraft at startup, in slew, and at any other time when the simulation is not actively running. static_cg_height=7.67 
static_cg_height= 1.000 
static_cg_height = 18.6 
static_cg_height = 3.43
gear_system_type This parameter defines the system type which drives the gear extension and retraction.
0 = electrical
1 = hydraulic
2 = pneumatic
3 = manual
4 = none
gear_system_type=1 
gear_system_type=0 
gear_system_type=3
emergency_extension_type One of:
None=0,Pump=1,Gravity=2.
emergency_extension_type=2
tailwheel_lock Boolean defining if a tailwheel lock is available (applicable only on tailwheel airplanes). tailwheel_lock = 1

[gear_warning_system]

The following parameters define the functionality of the aircraft’s gear warning system.  This is generally a function of the throttle lever position and the flap deflection. 

Property
Description
Examples
gear_warning_available Sets the type of gear warning system available on the aircraft, one of:
0 = None, 1 = Normal, 2 = Amphibian (audible alert for water vs. land setting).
gear_warning_available = 1
pct_throttle_limit The throttle limit, below which the gear warning will activate if the gear is not down and locked while the flaps are deflected to at least the setting for flap_limit_idle below. This flap limit can be 0 so that the warning effectively is a function of the throttle. A value between: 0 (idle) and 1.0 (Max throttle). pct_throttle_limit = 0.1
flap_limit_idle In conjunction with the throttle limit specified above, this limit is the flap deflection, above which the warning will activate if the gear is not down and locked while the throttle is below the limit specified above. By setting this limit to a value greater than zero, the pilot can reduce the throttle to idle without activating the warning. This is often utilized in jets to decelerate/descend the aircraft. flap_limit_idle = 5.0 
flap_limit_idle = 0.0 
flap_limit_idle = 15.0
flap_limit_power The flap limit, above which the warning will activate (regardless of throttle position). flap_limit_power = 25.5 flap_limit_power = 31.5 flap_limit_power = 30.0 flap_limit_power = 16.0

[brakes]

The following parameters define the aircraft's braking system:

 

Property
Description
Examples
parking_brake Boolean setting if a parking brake is available on the aircraft. parking_brake = 1 
parking_brake=1 
parking_brake = 0
toe_brakes_scale Sets the scaling of the braking effectiveness. 1.0 is the default. 0.0 scales the brakes to no effectiveness. toe_brakes_scale = 0.885 
toe_brakes_scale=1.000031 
toe_brakes_scale = 1.24 
toe_brakes_scale = 1.0
auto_brakes The number of increments that the auto-braking switch can be turned to. auto_brakes = 3 
auto_brakes = 4 
auto_brakes = 0
hydraulic_system_scalar The ratio of hydraulic system pressure to maximum brake hydraulic pressure. hydraulic_system_scalar = 1
differential_braking_scale Differential braking is a function of the normal both brakes on and the rudder pedal input. The amount of difference between the left and right brake is scaled by this value. 1.0 is the normal setting if differential braking is desired (particularly on tailwheel airplanes). 0.0 is the setting if no differential braking is desired. differential_braking_scale = 1.0

[hydraulic_system]

The following parameters define the aircraft's hydraulic system:

 

Property
Description
Examples
normal_pressure The normal operating pressure of the hydraulic system, in pounds per square inch. normal_pressure = 3000.0 
normal_pressure=0.000000 
normal_pressure = 0.0 
normal_pressure = 1000.0
electric_pumps The number of electric hydraulic pumps the aircraft is configured with. electric_pumps = 0 
electric_pumps = 1
engine_map This series of flags sets whether the corresponding engines of the aircraft are configured with hydraulic pumps. The flags correspond in order of the engines, starting with the left-most engine first and moving right. By default, all engines are equipped to drive a hydraulic pump. engine_map = 1,1,0,0 
engine_map = 1,1,1,1 
engine_map = 1,0,0,0 
engine_map = 1

[views]

The following parameter define the pilot's viewpoint.

 

Property
Description
Examples
eyepoint Position relative to datum reference point. eyepoint=48.2, -1.35, 1.7 
eyepoint=-0.205052,0.000000,3.604314 
eyepoint = -18.55, -1.97, 10.7 
eyepoint = -8.213, -0.8612, 2.220
zoom Zoom the view in or out from the viewpoint. zoom=1.0

[flaps.n]

For each flap set that is on the aircraft, a corresponding [flaps.n] section should exist.  Most general aviation aircraft and smaller jets only have one set of flaps (trailing edge), but it is typical for the larger commercial aircraft to have a set of leading edge flaps in addition to the trailing edge flaps.  The number of flap sets are determined by the number of [flaps.n] sections contained in the aircraft.cfg file.


Property
Description
Examples
type Integer value that indicates if this is a leading edge or trailing edge flap set:
0 = no flaps 1 = trailing edge, 2 = leading edge.
type = 1 
type=0 
type = 2 
type=1
span-outboard The percentage of half-wing span the flap extends to (from the wing-fuselage intersection). span-outboard = 0.8 
span-outboard=0.500000 
span-outboard = 0.41 
span-outboard = 0.5
extending-time Time it takes for the flap set to extend to the fullest deflection angle specified (seconds). extending-time = 20 
extending-time=0.000000 
extending-time = 2 
extending-time = 25
flaps-position.0
to
flaps-position.n
Each element of the flaps-position array indicates the deflection angle to which the flaps will deflect (in degrees). The largest deflection angle will be the one used for full flap deflection. flaps-position.0= 0 
flaps-position.0 = -9.0 
flaps-position.0 = -7 
flaps-position.0 = 0 
flaps-position.1 = 1 
flaps-position.2 = 2
flaps-position.3 = 5 
flaps-position.4 = 10 
flaps-position.5 = 15 
flaps-position.6 = 25 
flaps-position.7 = 30 
flaps-position.8 = 40
damaging-speed Speed at which the flaps begin to accrue damage (Knots Indicated Airspeed, KIAS). damaging-speed = 250 
damaging-speed = 200 
damaging-speed = 152 
damaging-speed = 120
blowout-speed Speed at which the flaps depart the aircraft (Knots Indicated Airspeed, KIAS). blowout-speed = 300 
blowout-speed = 250 
blowout-speed = 150 
blowout-speed = 175
lift_scalar The percentage of total lift due to flap deflection that this flap set is responsible for at full deflection. lift_scalar = 1.0 
lift_scalar = 0.7
drag_scalar The percentage of total drag due to flap deflection that this flap set is responsible for at full deflection. drag_scalar = 1.0 
drag_scalar = 0.9
pitch_scalar The percentage of total pitch due to flap deflection that this flap set is responsible for at full deflection. pitch_scalar= 1.0 
pitch_scalar= 0.9
system_type Integer value that indicates what type of system drives the flaps to deflect:, one of:
0 = Electric
1 = Hydraulic
2 = Pneumatic
3 = Manual
4 = None
system_type = 1 
system_type=0 
system_type = 0 
system_type = 3

[radios]

There should be a radio section in each aircraft.cfg.  This section configures the radios for each individual aircraft.  Each of the following keywords has a flag or set of flags, that determine if the particular radio element is available in the aircraft.  A “1” is used for true (or available), and 0 for false (or not available). 

Property
Description
Examples
audio.1 Is there an audio panel, set to 1. Audio.1 = 1 
Audio.1 = 0
com.1 Two flags, set the first one to 1 if a Com1 radio is available, and the second if it supports a standby frequency. Com.1 = 1, 1 
Com.1 = 1, 0
com.2 Two flags, set the first one to 1 if a Com2 radio is available, and the second if it supports a standby frequency. You cannot have Com2 without Com1. Com.2 = 1, 1 
Com.2 = 1, 0
nav.1 Three flags, set the first to 1 if there is a Nav1 receiver, the second if it supports a standby frequency, and the third if it supports a glideslope indication. Nav.1 = 1, 1, 1 
Nav.1 = 1, 0, 1 
Nav.1 = 0, 0, 0
nav.2 Three flags, set the first to 1 if there is a Nav2 receiver, the second if it supports a standby frequency, and the third if it supports a glideslope indication. You cannot have Nav2 without Nav1. Nav.2 = 1, 1, 0 
Nav.2 = 1, 0, 0
adf.1 If there is an ADF receiver, set to 1. Adf.1 = 1 
Adf.1 = 0
adf.2 If there is an ADF2 receiver, set to 1. Adf.2 = 1
transponder.1 If there is a transponder, set to 1. Transponder.1 = 1 
Transponder.1 = 0
marker.1 If there is a marker beacon receiver, set to 1. Marker.1 = 1 
Marker.1 = 0

[lights]

Each light that requires a special effect should be entered in this section. The following table gives the codes for the switches that will turn on the lights.

 

Code Switch
1 Beacon
2 Strobe
3 Navigation or Position
4 Cockpit
5 Landing
6 Taxi
7 Recognition
8 Wing
9 Logo
10 Cabin

Property
Description
Examples

light.0

to

light.n

The first entry of the line defines which circuit, or switch, the light is connected to (see the code table above).  Multiple lights may be connected to a single switch.  The next three entries are the position relative to datum reference point. The final entry is the special effect file name that is triggered (for example, fx_navred).  These files have .fx extensions and should be placed in the Flight Sim World/effects folder.  light.0 = 3, -19.14, -47.24, 1.38, fx_navredm , 
light.0 = 3, -150.30, -102.56, 3.22, fx_navredh , 
light.0 = 3, -6.60, -19.29, 0.79, fx_navred , 

light.0 = 3, 0.56, -28.41, 1.97, fx_navred , 
light.1 = 3, 0.56, 28.41, 1.97, fx_navgre , 
light.2 = 3, -31.20, 0.00, 9.09, fx_navwhi , 
light.3 = 2, 0.89, -28.48, 1.87, fx_strobe ,

[keyboard_response]

The aircraft flight controls can be manipulated by the keyboard. Because flight controls naturally become more sensitive as airspeed increases, it can become quite difficult to control the aircraft via the keyboard at high speeds.  To address this problem, the amount a single keypress increments a flight control is decreased by a factor of 1/2 at the first airspeed (in knots) listed on the line for the control, and to 1/8 at the second airspeed, and to  a scale interpolated from these values for all airspeeds in between. The example below shows that an elevator will increment by one degree when the airspeed is zero, by ¾ of one degree at 50 knots, ½ of one degree at 100 knots, 5/16 of one degree at 140 knots, and 1/8 of one degree at 180 knots or greater speed.

 

Property
Description
Examples
elevator Two breakpoint speeds for keypress increments. elevator = 150, 250 
elevator=150.000000,250.000000 
elevator = 100, 180 
elevator = 160, 360
aileron Two breakpoint speeds for keypress increments. aileron = 150, 250 
aileron=150.000000,250.000000 
aileron = 200, 1000 
aileron = 160, 360
rudder Two breakpoint speeds for keypress increments. rudder = 150, 250 
rudder=150.000000,250.000000 
rudder = 200, 1000 
rudder = 160, 360

[direction_indicators]

This section is used to define the characteristics of the direction indicators on the instrument panels, but does not include the magnetic compass (which has a separate section).  The list of indicators should be listed in order: 0,1,2,…n. 

Property
Description
Examples
direction_indicator.0
to
direction_indicator.n
One or two codes. If the indicator is type 4, then there must be two entries here (the indicator, and the indicator to which this one is slaved).  The indicator codes are:
0 = None
1 = Vacuum gyro
2 = Electric gyro
3 = Electro-mag slaved compass
4 = Slaved to another indicator
direction_indicator.0=3,0 
direction_indicator.0 = 0 
direction_indicator.0=1,0 
direction_indicator.0=0,0 

direction_indicator.1=2,0
induction_compass.0
to
induction_compass.n
If there is an induction compass, one of:
1 = Electric
2 = Anemometer driven
induction_compass.0=2

[attitude_indicators]

This section is used to define the characteristics of the attitude indicators on the instrument panels. The list of indicators should be listed in order: 0,1,2,...n. 


Property
Description
Examples
attitude_indicator.0
to
attitude_indicator.n
The system which drives the attitude indicator. One of:
0 = none
1 = Vacuum driven gyro
2 = Electrically driven gyro
attitude_indicator.0 = 2 
attitude_indicator.0=1 
attitude_indicator.0 = 1 
attitude_indicator.0 = 0 

attitude_indicator.1 = 1 
attitude_indicator.1 = 2

 

[altimeters]

Property
Description
Examples

altimeter.0

to

altimeter.n

If the parameter is set to 1, a separate altimeter is instantiated, which will operate independently of other altimeters, and can have failures applied to it.

altimeter.0=1 
altimeter.0 = 1

altimeter.1=1 
altimeter.1 = 1

 

[turn_indicators]

This section is used to define the characteristics of the turn indicators on the instrument panels.  The list of indicators should be listed in order: 0,1,2,…n. 

Property
Description
Examples
turn_indicator.0 Two code values, which define the system on which the turn indicators are dependant. The first value is for turn, the second for bank. The codes are:
0 = None
1 = Electrically driven gyro
2 = Vacuum driven gyro
turn_indicator.0=0,0 
turn_indicator.0=1,0 
turn_indicator.0=1,1 
turn_indicator.0=1

[vacuum_system]

The following parameters define the aircraft's vacuum system:

 

Property
Description
Examples
max_pressure Maximum pressure in psi. max_pressure=5.15 
max_pressure=5.000000 
max_pressure=5.150000 
max_pressure=0
vacuum_type Vacuum type, one of:
0 = None
1 = Engine pump (default)
2 = Pneumatic
3 = Venturi.
vacuum_type=2 
vacuum_type=1 
vacuum_type=0
electric_backup_pressure Backup pressure in psi. electric_backup_pressure=0.000000 
electric_backup_pressure=4.900000 
electric_backup_pressure=4.9 
electric_backup_pressure=5.15
engine_map This series of flags sets whether the corresponding engines of the aircraft are configured with vacuum systems. The flags correspond in order of the engines, starting with the left-most engine first and moving right. engine_map=1,1 
engine_map=1

[pneumatic_system]

The following parameters define the aircraft's pneumatic pressure system:

 

Property
Description
Examples
max_pressure The maximum pressure of the pneumatic system. max_pressure=18.000000 
max_pressure=0.000000 
max_pressure = 21.5 
max_pressure=0
bleed_air_scalar The ratio of bleed-air pressure from the engines to pneumatic air pressure in the pneumatic system. bleed_air_scalar=1.000000 
bleed_air_scalar=0.000000 
bleed_air_scalar=0.00000 
bleed_air_scalar=0.150000

[exits]

The following parameters define the aircraft's exits:

 

Property
Description
Examples
number_of_exits This value defines the number of simulated exits, or doors, on the aircraft. number_of_exits = 3 
number_of_exits =1 
number_of_exits = 1 
number_of_exits = 2
exit.0
to
exit.n
Five values: the open and close rate percent per second (where 1.0 is fully open), the position relative to datum reference point, and the type of exit, one of:
0 = Main
1 = Cargo
2 = Emergency
exit.0 = 0.4, 40.50,-6.0, 7.0, 0 
exit.0 = 0.4, 41.3, -6.0, 4.0, 0 
exit.0 = 0.4, -30.30, -9.5, 1, 0 
exit.0 = 0.4, -16.50, -4.5, 0.5, 0 
exit.1 = 0.4, -74.00, -4.5, 0.5, 1 
exit.2 = 0.4, -36.50, -2.5, -1.0, 1

[effects]

The effects section of the file refers to the visual effects that result from various systems or reactions of the aircraft. An effect file associated with a keyword in this section will be used when the corresponding action is triggered.  If no entry is made a default effect file will be used. The table below outlines the aircraft effects currently supported, though of course not all effects are supported on all aircraft.


Each entry can be followed by a 1 if the effect is to be run for a single iteration. Set this number to zero or leave blank (the default), for the effect to continue as long as the respective action is active.


Make an entry in the configuration file to replace any of these effects with a new one. Or to turn off the effect add an entry that references the fx_dummy effect (which does nothing).


Property
Description
Default
Single Iteration
Examples
wake The wake effect name. fx_wake False wake=fx_wake
water The landing, taxiing or taking off from water effect. fx_spray False water=fx_spray
waterspeed Traveling at speed on the water. fx_spray False
dirt Moving on dirt. fx_tchdrt False dirt=fx_tchdrt
concrete Moving on concrete. fx_sparks False concrete=fx_sparks 
concrete=fx_tchdwn_s
touchdown The touchdown effect, which usually is followed by an optional 1 to indicate the effect is to be run once only. fx_tchdwn True touchdown=fx_tchdwn, 1 
touchdown=fx_tchdwn_s, 1
contrail Contrail effect, applies to jets flying above 29000ft. fx_contrail_l False
startup Engine startup. fx_engstrt True startup=fx_engstrt_jenny
startup=fx_engstrt_cub
landrotorwash Rotor wash. Helicopters only. fx_rtr_lnd False
waterrotorwash Water rotor wash. Helicopters only. fx_rtr_wtr False
vaportrail_l Left wing vapor trail. fx_vaportrail_l False
vaportrail_r Right wing vapor trail. fx_vaportrail_r False
l_wingtipvortice Left wingtip vortice (contrails off the wingtip, usually from a jet such as the F18). fx_wingtipvortice_l True
r_wingtipvortice Right wingtip vortice. fx_wingtipvortice_r True
fueldump Fuel dump active. No default effect False
EngineFire Engine fire. fx_engfire False  EngineFire=fx_heliFire
EngineDamage Engine damage. fx_engsmoke False
EngineOilLeak Oil leak. fx_OilLeak False
SkidPavement Skid on tarmac, leaves a mark. fx_skidmark False
SnowSkiTrack Skid on snow. No default effect False SnowTrack = fx_snowtrack
WheelSnowSpray Taking off on snow. fx_WheelSnowSpray False WheelSnowSpray = fx_WheelSnowSpray
WheelWetSpray Taking off on wet runway. fx_WheelWetSpray False WheelWetSpray = fx_WheelWetSpray
WetEngineWash Similar to waterrotorwash, the effect a propeller has on wet terrain when flying below 20m. fx_WetEngineWash False
SnowEngineWash Similar to waterrotorwash, the effect a propeller has on snow covered terrain, or when it is snowing, when flying below 20m. fx_SnowEngineWash False
WaterBallastDrain Draining the water ballast, applies only to sailplanes. fx_WaterBallastDrain False
PistonFailure One or more pistons failed. fx_PistonFailure True
 
windshield_rain_effect_available Special case, set this to 0 to turn off the effect of rain on the windshield. windshield_rain_effect_available = 0

[autopilot]

The following parameters determine the functionality of the aircraft’s autopilot system, including the flight director.


Navigation Modes:

The navigation and glideslope controllers utilize standard proportional/integral /derivative feedback controllers (PID).  The integrator and derivative controllers have boundaries, which are the maximum error from the controlled parameter in which these are active.  It is not necessary to have all three components active.  Setting the respective control constant to 0 effectively disables that component, allowing PI or PD controllers to be utilized. Navigation mode parameters begin with nav_ or gs_.

Property
Description
Examples
autopilot_available Setting this flag to a 1 makes available an autopilot system on the aircraft. autopilot_available=1 
autopilot_available=0
flight_director_available Setting this flag to a 1 makes available a flight director on the aircraft. flight_director_available=1 
flight_director_available=0
default_vertical_speed The default vertical speed, in feet per second, that the autopilot will command when selecting a large altitude change. default_vertical_speed=1800 
default_vertical_speed = 1800.0 
default_vertical_speed= 700.0 
default_vertical_speed= 1800.0
autothrottle_available Setting this flag to a 1 makes available an autothrottle system on the aircraft. autothrottle_available = 1 
autothrottle_available= 0
autothrottle_arming_required Setting this flag to 1 will require that the autothrottle be armed prior to it being engaged. Setting it to zero allows the autothrottle to be engaged directly. autothrottle_arming_required = 1 
autothrottle_arming_required= 0
autothrottle_max_rpm This sets the maximum engine speed, in percent, that the autothrottle will attempt to maintain. autothrottle_max_rpm = 90 
autothrottle_max_rpm = 90
autothrottle_takeoff_ga Setting this flag to 1 enables takeoff / go-around operations with the autothrottle. autothrottle_takeoff_ga = 1 
autothrottle_takeoff_ga= 0 
default_pitch_mode This determines the default pitch mode when the autopilot logic is turned on.
0 = None
1 = Pitch Hold (current pitch angle)
2 = Altitude Hold (current altitude)
If no value is set, Pitch Hold will be the default.
pitch_takeoff_ga The default pitch that the Takeoff/Go-Around mode references. pitch_takeoff_ga=8.0 
pitch_takeoff_ga=0.0
max_pitch The maximum pitch angle in degrees that the autopilot will command either up or down. max_pitch=10.0 
max_pitch_acceleration The maximum angular pitch acceleration, in degrees per second squared, that the autopilot will command up or down. max_pitch_acceleration=1.0 
max_pitch_velocity_lo_alt The maximum angular pitch velocity, in degrees per second, which the autopilot will command when at an altitude below that specified by the variable max_pitch_velocity_lo_alt_breakpoint. max_pitch_velocity_lo_alt=2.0 
max_pitch_velocity_hi_alt The maximum angular pitch velocity, in degrees per second, which the autopilot will command when at an altitude above the altitude specified by the variable max_pitch_velocity_hi_alt_breakpoint. The maximum velocity is interpolated between the hi and lo altitude velocities when between the hi and lo altitude breakpoints. max_pitch_velocity_hi_alt=1.5 
max_pitch_velocity_lo_alt_breakpoint The altitude below which the autopilot maximum pitch velocity is limited by the variable max_pitch_velocity_lo_alt. max_pitch_velocity_lo_alt_breakpoint=20000.0 
max_pitch_velocity_hi_alt_breakpoint The altitude above which the autopilot maximum pitch velocity is limited by the variable max_pitch_velocity_hi_alt. The maximum velocity is interpolated between the hi and lo altitude velocities when between the hi and lo altitude breakpoints. max_pitch_velocity_hi_alt_breakpoint=28000.0 
max_bank The maximum bank angle in degrees that the autopilot will command either left or right.
max_bank=25.0 
max_bank=30,25,20,15,10 
max_bank=30,15 
max_bank=25.000000
max_bank_acceleration The maximum angular bank acceleration, in degrees per second squared, that the autopilot will command left or right. max_bank_acceleration=1.8 
max_bank_velocity The maximum angular bank velocity, in degrees per second, which the autopilot will command left or right. max_bank_velocity=3.000000
max_throttle_rate This value sets the maximum rate at which the autothrottle will move the throttle position. In the example, the maximum rate is set to 10% of the total throttle range per second. max_throttle_rate=0.100000
nav_proportional_control Proportional controller constant in lateral navigation modes. nav_proportional_control=12.00 
nav_proportional_control=16.00 
nav_proportional_control=9.00 
nav_proportional_control=11.00
nav_integrator_control Integral controller constant in lateral navigation modes. nav_integrator_control=0.25 
nav_integrator_control=0.17 
nav_integrator_control=0.20 
nav_integrator_control=0.250000
nav_derivative_control Derivative controller constant in lateral navigation modes. nav_derivative_control=0.00 
nav_derivative_control=0.000000
nav_integrator_boundary The boundary, or maximum signal error, in degrees in which the integrator function is active. In the example, the integrator is active when the error is between -2.5 and +2.5 degrees from the centerline of the navigation signal. nav_integrator_boundary=2.50 

nav_derivative_boundary The boundary, or maximum signal error, in degrees in which the derivative function is active. In the example, the derivative controller is not active because the maximum error is set to 0. nav_derivative_boundary=0.00 

gs_proportional_control Proportional controller constant in glideslope mode. gs_proportional_control=25.0 
gs_proportional_control = 18.0 
gs_proportional_control=9.52 
gs_proportional_control=9.520000
gs_integrator_control Integral controller constant in glideslope mode. gs_integrator_control=0.53 
gs_integrator_control = 0.33 
gs_integrator_control=0.26 
gs_integrator_control=0.260000
gs_derivative_control Derivative controller constant in glideslope mode. gs_derivative_control = 0.00 
gs_integrator_boundary The boundary, or maximum signal error, in degrees in which the glideslope integrator function is active. In the example, the integrator is active when the error is between -0.7 and +0.7 degrees from the centerline of the glideslope signal. gs_integrator_boundary = 0.70 
gs_derivative_boundary The boundary, or maximum signal error, in degrees in which the derivative function is active. In the example, the derivative controller is not active because the maximum error is set to 0. gs_derivative_boundary = 0.00 
yaw_damper_gain The proportional gain on the yaw dampers yaw rate error. yaw_damper_gain = 1.0 
yaw_damper_gain = 0.0
direction_indicator Indicates which direction indicator system on the aircraft is being referenced by the autopilot.
0 = the first, and is the default.
direction_indicator=1
attitude_indicator Indicates which attitude indicator system on the aircraft is being referenced by the autopilot.
0 = the first, and is the default.
attitude_indicator =1
default_bank_mode This determines the default bank mode when the autopilot logic is turned on.
0 = None
1 = Wing Level Hold
2 = Heading Hold (current heading).
If no value is set, Wing Level Hold will be the default.
default_bank_mode=2
[fuel]

This section defines the characteristics of the fuel system, including the tanks, fuel type, and the number of fuel selectors. The number of fuel selectors is intended to match the number of visual selectors on the instrument panel.

Property
Description
Examples
center1
center2
center3
leftmain
leftaux
lefttip
rightmain
rightaux
righttip
external1
external2
Position of the tank relative to datum reference point, followed by the usable and unusable capacities of the tanks, in gallons. Center1 = -83.5, 0.0, -7.0, 17164.0, 0.0 
Center1 = -48.7, 0.0, -4.0, 982.0, 0.0 
Center2 = -193.5, 0.0, 6.0, 3300.0, 0.0 
Center3=-10.600000,0.000000,-1.900000,25.000000,0.000000 
LeftMain = -3, -19, 0, 1500, 0 
RightMain = -8.46, 6.45, 0.0, 71.0, 0.0 
LeftAux = -2.24, -11.4, 2.40, 15.0, 0.00 
fuel_type One of:
1 = Avgas
2 = JetA
fuel_type = 2 
fuel_type = 1 
number_of_tank_selectors Number of fuel tank selectors (maximum 4 and should be less than or equal to the number of engines). number_of_tank_selectors=1 
number_of_tank_selectors = 2
electric_pump Boolean that sets whether an electric boost pump is available, 0 = FALSE, 1 = TRUE. electric_pump=0 
electric_pump = 1
fuel_dump_rate Percent of fuel that can be dumped per second. fuel_dump_rate = 0.0167
engine_driven_pump Set to 0 if the pump is engine driven (1 is the default). engine_driven_pump=0 
engine_driven_pump=1
manual_pump Set to 1 if there is a manual transfer pump. manual_transfer_pump=1
anemometer_pump Set to 1 if there is an anemometer pump. anemometer_pump=1

 

 

[airplane_geometry]

This section has been added mainly for reference. Although you can edit these values by hand here in the aircraft.cfg file, modification of some of these variables will have little to no effect on airplane performance, as the flight model aerodynamic coefficients are all located in the .air file. 

Property
Description
Examples
wing_area Area of the top surface of the entire wing tip-to-tip (ft2). wing_area = 1137.0 
wing_area= 150.000 
wing_area = 5825.0 
wing_area = 199.0
wing_span Wing span is the horizontal distance from wing-tip to wing-tip (feet). wing_span = 94.75 
wing_span= 30.000 
wing_span = 211.4 
wing_span = 37.8
wing_root_chord Length of the wing chord (leading edge to trailing edge) at the intersection of the wing and the fuselage (feet). wing_root_chord = 18.0 
wing_root_chord= 5.000 
wing_root_chord = 48.8 
wing_root_chord = 5.3
wing_dihedral When looking at the front of an aircraft, this is the angle between the wing leading edge and a horizontal line parallel to the ground (degrees). wing_dihedral = 6.2 
wing_dihedral= 7.998 
wing_dihedral = 7.0 
wing_dihedral = 6.9
wing_incidence When looking at the side of an aircraft from the wing tip, this is the angle the mean wing chord makes with a horizontal line parallel to the ground, (degrees). Note: this parameter is not used in the real-time aerodynamic calculations, as it is already factored into the lift and drag parameters. wing_incidence = 1.0 
wing_incidence= 0.000 
wing_incidence = 2.0 
wing_incidence = 1.5
wing_twist This is the difference in wing incidence from the root chord and the tip chord of the wing, (degrees). Also known as wash-out. wing_twist = -0.5 
wing_twist= -1.000
wing_twist = -1.0 
wing_twist = -1.5
oswald_efficiency_factor This is a measure of the aerodynamic efficiency of the wing. A theoretically perfect wing will have a factor of 1.0. oswald_efficiency_factor= 0.750 
oswald_efficiency_factor= 0.68 
oswald_efficiency_factor= 0.7
wing_winglets_flag Boolean to indicate if the aircraft incorporates the use of winglets; 0 = FALSE, 1 = TRUE. wing_winglets_flag= 0 
wing_winglets_flag = 1
wing_sweep When looking down on top of an aircraft, this is the angle the wing leading edge makes with a horizontal line perpendicular to the fuselage, (degrees). wing_sweep = 25.0 
wing_sweep = 37.5 
wing_sweep = 0.0
wing_pos_apex_lon Longitudinal distance of the wing apex (measured at centerline of aircraft) from defined reference point (feet). This distance is measured positive in the forward (out the aircraft nose) direction. wing_pos_apex_lon = 8.0 
wing_pos_apex_lon= 0.000 
wing_pos_apex_lon = -58.2 
wing_pos_apex_lon = -5.6
wing_pos_apex_vert Vertical distance of the wing apex (measured at centerline of aircraft) from defined reference point (feet). This distance is measured positive in the up direction. wing_pos_apex_vert = 0 
wing_pos_apex_vert = -3.6
htail_area Area of the top surface of the entire horizontal tail (tip-to-tip) (ft2). htail_area = 338.0 
htail_area= 28.000 
htail_area = 1470 
htail_area = 60.0
htail_span Horizontal tail span is the horizontal distance from horizontal tail-tip to horizontal tail -tip (feet). htail_span = 41.7 
htail_span= 7.917 
htail_span = 72.8 
htail_span = 15.9
htail_pos_lon Longitudinal distance of the horizontal tail apex (measured at centerline of aircraft) from defined reference point (feet). This distance is measured positive in the forward (out the aircraft nose) direction. htail_pos_lon = -35.0 
htail_pos_lon= -11.417 
htail_pos_lon = -210.0 
htail_pos_lon = -20.1
htail_pos_vert Vertical distance of the horizontal tail apex (measured at centerline of aircraft) from defined reference point, (feet). This distance is measured positive in the up direction. htail_pos_vert = 0.0 
htail_pos_vert = 12.7 
htail_pos_vert = 0.9
htail_incidence When looking at the side of an aircraft from the horizontal tail tip, this is the angle the mean horizontal tail chord makes with a horizontal line parallel to the ground (degrees). htail_incidence= 0.000 
htail_incidence = 0.5 
htail_incidence = 4.0
htail_sweep When looking down on top of an aircraft, this is the angle the horizontal tail leading edge makes with a horizontal line perpendicular to the fuselage (degrees). htail_sweep = 30.0 
htail_sweep = 37.5 
htail_sweep = 0.0
vtail_area Area of the surface of one side of the vertical tail (fuselage-to-tip) (ft2). vtail_area = 224.0 
vtail_area= 7.000 
vtail_area = 1060 
vtail_area = 88.0
vtail_span Vertical tail span is the vertical distance from the vertical tail-fuselage intersection to the tip of the vertical tail (feet). vtail_span = 20.0 
vtail_span= 3.017 
vtail_span = 37.1 
vtail_span = 10.7
vtail_sweep When looking at the side of the vertical tail, this is the angle the vertical tail leading edge makes with a vertical line perpendicular to the fuselage (degrees). vtail_sweep = 35.0 
vtail_sweep = 45.0 
vtail_sweep = 0.0
vtail_pos_lon Longitudinal distance of the vertical tail apex (measured at centerline of aircraft) from defined reference point, (feet). This distance is measured positive in the forward (out the aircraft nose) direction. vtail_pos_lon = -35.8 
vtail_pos_lon= -11.417 
vtail_pos_lon = -198.5 
vtail_pos_lon = -22.9
vtail_pos_vert Vertical distance of the vertical tail apex (measured at centerline of aircraft) from defined reference point (feet). This distance is measured positive in the up direction. vtail_pos_vert = 5.8 
vtail_pos_vert= 1.500 
vtail_pos_vert = 26.1 
vtail_pos_vert = 3.1
elevator_area Area of the top surface of the entire elevator (tip-to-tip) (ft2). elevator_area = 70.5 
elevator_area= 12.040 
elevator_area = 327 
elevator_area = 20.0
aileron_area Area of the top surface of all the ailerons on the wing (ft2). aileron_area = 26.9 
aileron_area= 15.000 
aileron_area = 225 
aileron_area = 11.3
rudder_area Area of the side surface of the entire rudder (ft2). rudder_area = 56.2 
rudder_area= 2.450 
rudder_area = 230 
rudder_area = 10.5
elevator_up_limit Angular limit of the elevator when deflected up (degrees). elevator_up_limit = 22.5 
elevator_up_limit= 27.502 
elevator_up_limit = 25 
elevator_up_limit = 17.0
elevator_down_limit Angular limit of the elevator when deflected down (degrees). elevator_down_limit = 19.5 
elevator_down_limit= 20.626 
elevator_down_limit = 15 
elevator_down_limit = 15.5
aileron_up_limit Angular limit of the aileron when deflected up (degrees). aileron_up_limit = 20.0 
aileron_up_limit= 19.481 
aileron_up_limit = 25 
aileron_up_limit = 18.0
aileron_down_limit Angular limit of the aileron when deflected down (degrees). aileron_down_limit = 20.0 
aileron_down_limit= 14.897 
aileron_down_limit = 15 
aileron_down_limit = 18.0
rudder_limit Angular limit of the rudder deflection (degrees). rudder_limit = 26.0 
rudder_limit= 23.491 
rudder_limit = 31.5
rudder_limit = 30.0
elevator_trim_limit Angular limit of the elevator trim tab (degrees). elevator_trim_limit = 20.0 
elevator_trim_limit= 20.000 
elevator_trim_limit = 20 
elevator_trim_limit = 15.0
spoiler_limit Angular limit of the wing spoilers on an aircraft, (degrees). If this limit is zero, no spoilers exist for the aircraft. spoiler_limit = 60.0 
spoiler_limit= 59.989 
spoiler_limit = 45 
spoiler_limit = 0.0
spoiler_extension_time Spoiler extension time in seconds. spoiler_extension_time = 2.0 
spoiler_extension_time=5.000000 
spoiler_extension_time = 0.2 
spoiler_extension_time = 1.0
spoilerons_available Boolean to indicate if the spoilers also behave as spoilerons for roll control (if spoilers are available): 0 = FALSE, 1 = TRUE. spoilerons_available = 1
spoilerons_available= 0 
spoilerons_available = 0
aileron_to_spoileron_gain If spoilerons are available, this value is the constant used in determining the amount of spoiler deflection per aileron deflection. aileron_to_spoileron_gain = 3 
aileron_to_spoileron_gain = 0 
aileron_to_spoileron_gain = 4.6
min_ailerons_for_spoilerons This value indicates at what aileron deflection the spoilers are become active for roll control, (degrees). min_ailerons_for_spoilerons = 10 
min_ailerons_for_spoilerons = 0 
min_ailerons_for_spoilerons = 5
min_flaps_for_spoilerons This value indicates at what minimum flap handle position the spoilerons become active. min_flaps_for_spoilerons= 0.0
auto_spoiler_available Set to 1 if auto spoiler is available. auto_spoiler_available = 1 
auto_spoiler_available = 0
positive_g_limit_flaps_up Design g load tolerance (flaps up). positive_g_limit_flaps_up = 4.0 
positive_g_limit_flaps_up = 3.0 
positive_g_limit_flaps_up = 5.5
positive_g_limit_flaps_down Design g load tolerance (flaps down). positive_g_limit_flaps_down= 3.0 
positive_g_limit_flaps_down=2.000000 
positive_g_limit_flaps_down= 5.5
negative_g_limit_flaps_up Design g load tolerance (negative, flaps up). negative_g_limit_flaps_up = -3.0 
negative_g_limit_flaps_up = -2.0 
negative_g_limit_flaps_up = -1.5
negative_g_limit_flaps_down Design g load tolerance (negative, flaps down). negative_g_limit_flaps_down= -2.0 
negative_g_limit_flaps_down= -1.5 
negative_g_limit_flaps_down= -3.5
load_safety_factor Design g load safety factor. load_safety_factor = 1.5
fly_by_wire Fly by wire system available. fly_by_wire = 1
spoiler_handle_available Boolean that configures the airplane with manual control of the spoiler deflections. 0 = FALSE, 1 = TRUE. spoiler_handle_available = 0
flap_to_aileron_scale Flaperons - deflection of ailerons due to flap deflection. flap_to_aileron_scale = 0.3 
flap_to_aileron_scale = 0.5
aileron_to_rudder_scale Link the rudder to aileron input. aileron_to_rudder_scale = 0.4

[reference speeds]

The values given in this section are mainly for reference, as the performance of the aircraft is held in the .air file.

Property
Description
Examples
flaps_up_stall_speed Stall speed of the aircraft in a clean (flaps up) configuration at standard sea level conditions, (Knots True Airspeed, KTAS). flaps_up_stall_speed = 142.0 
flaps_up_stall_speed= 24.000 
flaps_up_stall_speed = 140.0 
flaps_up_stall_speed = 84.0
full_flaps_stall_speed Stall speed of the aircraft in a dirty (flaps full down) configuration at standard sea level conditions, (Knots True Airspeed, KTAS). full_flaps_stall_speed = 113.0 
full_flaps_stall_speed= 24.000 
full_flaps_stall_speed = 112.0 
full_flaps_stall_speed = 75.0
cruise_speed Typical cruise speed of the aircraft in a clean (flaps up) configuration at a typical cruise altitude, (Knots True Airspeed, KTAS). cruise_speed = 477.0 
cruise_speed= 84.560 
cruise_speed = 505.0 
cruise_speed = 180.0
max_mach Maximum design mach of the aircraft. This generally only applies to turbine airplanes. max_mach = 0.82 
max_mach = 0.92 
max_mach = 0.58 
max_mach = 0.83
max_indicated_speed Maximum design indicated airspeed. Also referred to as Never Exceed Speed or Red Line of the aircraft, (Knots Indicated Airspeed). max_indicated_speed = 340 
max_indicated_speed=65.000000 
max_indicated_speed = 365.0 
max_indicated_speed = 223

[forcefeedback]

As detailed in the tables below, the parameters in this section of an aircraft.cfg file define the forces generated by that aircraft if the user is operating a force feedback joystick.
Stick shaker parameters
These parameters define the simulated stick shaker force felt in the stick or yoke when flying an aircraft equipped with a stick shaker.
Gear bump parameters
These parameters define the simulated forces transferred from the airframe and gear drag to the stick or yoke when the aircraft’s nose and main landing gear is raised or lowered (cycled). In fixed-gear aircraft this effect won't be felt because, by definition, the landing gear doesn't move. Different aircraft have different gear geometries that result in each of the gear mechanisms starting and ending its cycle at a different time. The timing deltas are brief, typically less than a second between the time that each gear starts and ends its cycle.
Ground bumps parameters
These parameters collectively define a composite force that simulates the forces felt through an aircraft's ground steering controls as the aircraft travels over an uneven surface. The parameters are divided into two subgroups (numbered 1 and 2), and define the behavior of two distinct forces. The combination of the two forces define a composite force that is transferred to the stick or yoke. The two forces are both sinusoidal periodic forces, with frequencies determined by the following linear equation:
  • frequency = (ground_bumps_slope * aircraft_ground_speed) + ground_bumps_intercept
The ground_bumps_magnitude parameters set the magnitude of the force. The ground_bumps_angle parameters set the direction from which the force is felt.
Crash parameters
These parameters define the simulated forces felt in the stick or yoke when the aircraft crashes. The parameters are divided into two subgroups (numbered 1 and 2), and define the behavior of two distinct crash-induced forces. The first force is a constant force that lasts for 0.5 seconds. After 0.5 seconds, it stops and the second force starts. The second force is a periodic square wave force; its amplitude declines linearly to 0.

Property
Description
Examples
gear_bump_nose_magnitude Integer from 0 - 10000. gear_bump_nose_magnitude=3000 
gear_bump_nose_magnitude=6000
gear_bump_nose_direction Integer from 0 - 35999 degrees. gear_bump_nose_direction=18000
gear_bump_nose_duration Integer, microseconds. gear_bump_nose_duration=250000
gear_bump_left_magnitude Integer from 0 - 10000. gear_bump_left_magnitude=2700 
gear_bump_left_magnitude=6000
gear_bump_left_direction Integer from 0 - 35999 degrees. gear_bump_left_direction=35500 
gear_bump_left_direction=9000
gear_bump_left_duration Integer, microseconds. gear_bump_left_duration=250000
gear_bump_right_magnitude Integer from 0 - 10000. gear_bump_right_magnitude=2700 
gear_bump_right_magnitude=6000
gear_bump_right_direction Integer from 0 - 35999 degrees. gear_bump_right_direction=00500 
gear_bump_right_direction=27000
gear_bump_right_duration Integer, microseconds. gear_bump_right_duration=250000
ground_bumps_magnitude1 Integer from 0 - 10000. ground_bumps_magnitude1=1300 
ground_bumps_magnitude1=3250 
ground_bumps_magnitude1=2500 
ground_bumps_magnitude1=2600
ground_bumps_angle1 Integer from 0 - 35999 degrees. ground_bumps_angle1=8900
ground_bumps_intercept1 Floating point number, from 0 to 1,000,000 cycles per second. ground_bumps_intercept1=3.0 
ground_bumps_intercept1=5.0 
ground_bumps_intercept1=10.0 
ground_bumps_intercept1=4.0
ground_bumps_slope1 Floating point number, from 0 to 1,000,000 cycles per second. ground_bumps_slope1=0.20 
ground_bumps_slope1=0.48 
ground_bumps_slope1=0.300 
ground_bumps_slope1=0.6
ground_bumps_magnitude2 Integer from 0 - 10000. ground_bumps_magnitude2=200 
ground_bumps_magnitude2=750 
ground_bumps_magnitude2=350 
ground_bumps_magnitude2=1200
ground_bumps_angle2 0 - 35999 degrees. ground_bumps_angle2=09100 
ground_bumps_angle2=9100
ground_bumps_intercept2 Floating point number, from 0 to 1,000,000 cycles per second. ground_bumps_intercept2=1.075 
ground_bumps_intercept2=0.075 
ground_bumps_intercept2 =1.075 
ground_bumps_intercept2=0.085
ground_bumps_slope2 Floating point number, from 0 to 1,000,000 cycles per second. ground_bumps_slope2=0.035 
ground_bumps_slope2=1.0 
ground_bumps_slope2=0.65
crash_magnitude1 Sets the magnitude of the first force, from 0 to 10000. crash_magnitude1=10000
crash_direction1 Sets the direction from which first force is felt, from 0 to 35999. crash_direction1=01000
crash_magnitude2 Sets the initial magnitude of the second force, from 0 to 10000. crash_magnitude2=10000
crash_direction2 Sets the direction from which the second force is felt, from 0 to 35999. crash_direction2=9000
crash_period2 Determines the frequency (frequency = 1/period) of the second crash force, in microseconds. crash_period2=75000
crash_duration2 Sets the amount of time that the second crash force is felt, in microseconds. crash_duration2=2500000 
crash_duration2=3500000
stick_shaker_magnitude Integer from 0 - 10000. stick_shaker_magnitude=5000
stick_shaker_direction Integer from 0 - 35999 degrees. stick_shaker_direction=0
stick_shaker_period In microseconds. stick_shaker_period=111111

[stall_warning]

This section defines the stall warning system of the aircraft.

 

Property
Description
Examples
type This flag determines the type of stall warning system, one of:
0 = None
1 = Suction
2 = Electric
type=2 
type=0 
type=1
stick_shaker Set to 1 if the aircraft has a stick shaker. stick_shaker=1 
stick_shaker=0

[deice_system]

This section defines the deice system of the aircraft.

 

Property
Description
Examples
structural_deice_type Type of deicer, of one:
0 = None
1 = Heated Leading Edge
2 = Bleed Air Boots
3 = Eng Pump Boots.
structural_deice_type=1
structural_deice_type=0 
structural_deice_type=3 
structural_deice_type=2

[piston_engine]

A piston engine’s power can be determined through a series of equations that represent the Otto cycle of a four-stroke piston engine, multiplied by the number of pistons available.  This section contains all the information the simulation needs to be able to determine how much power the engines are capable of producing.  Power can also be scaled from the calculated values generated for piston engines with the “power_scalar” value.

Property
Description
Examples
detonation_onset The manifold pressure that if reached or exceeded will lead to the engine detonating. detonation_onset = 36 
detonation_onset = 80
supercharged On/off. supercharged=1
supercharger_boost Multiplier on manifold pressure if supercharger is engaged.. supercharger_boost=1.20
supercharger_power_cost Percent of horsepower required to drive supercharger. supercharger_power_cost=0.22 
emergency_boost_duration

Emergency boost duration in seconds. The emergency boost system was designed to model the systems used on WWII aircraft. The nitrous and supercharging systems are available for more modern aircraft.

emergency_boost_duration=0
max_rpm_mechanical_efficiency_scalar Scalar value that can be modified to tune the mechanical efficiency of the engine at maximum rpm. Increase this value to increase the mechanical efficiency, decrease it to decrease the mechanical efficiency. max_rpm_mechanical_efficiency_scalar= 1.0
idle_rpm_mechanical_efficiency_scalar Scalar value that can be modified to tune the mechanical efficiency of the engine at idle rpm. Increase this value to increase the mechanical efficiency, decrease it to decrease the mechanical efficiency. idle_rpm_mechanical_efficiency_scalar= 1.0
max_rpm_friction_scalar Scalar value that can be modified to tune the internal friction of the engine at maximum rpm. Increase this value to increase the friction, decrease it to decrease the friction. max_rpm_friction_scalar=1.000 
idle_rpm_friction_scalar Scalar value that can be modified to tune the internal friction of the engine at idle rpm. Increase this value to increase the friction, decrease it to decrease the friction, (can be used to tune the rpm at which the engine idles). idle_rpm_friction_scalar=1.000 
cylinder_displacement Cubic inches per cylinder displacement. cylinder_displacement= 55.000 
cylinder_displacement= 91.7 
cylinder_displacement= 90.0 
cylinder_displacement= 109.4
two_stroke_cycle Two stroke engine. two_stroke_cycle = 1
compression_ratio Compression ratio of each cylinder. compression_ratio= 11.500 
compression_ratio= 8.0 
compression_ratio= 8.5 
compression_ratio= 6.0
number_of_cylinders Integer value; number of cylinders in the engine. number_of_cylinders= 2 
number_of_cylinders= 6 
number_of_cylinders=4 
number_of_cylinders=9
max_rated_rpm Maximum rated revolutions per minute (RPM) of the engine (red line). max_rated_rpm= 5500.000 
max_rated_rpm= 2700.0 
max_rated_rpm= 2700 
max_rated_rpm= 2300
max_rated_hp Maximum rated brake horsepower output of the engine. max_rated_hp= 53.600 
max_rated_hp= 300.0 
max_rated_hp= 180 
max_rated_hp= 450
fuel_metering_type Integer value indicating the fuel metering type, one of:
0 = Fuel Injected
1 = Gravity Carburetor,
2 = Aerobatic Carburetor.
fuel_metering_type= 1 
fuel_metering_type= 0 
fuel_metering_type = 1
cooling_type Integer value indicating the method of engine cooling, one of:
0 = air cooled
1 = liquid cooled.
cooling_type= 1 
cooling_type= 0
normalized_starter_torque This value can be modified to increase/decrease the torque supplied by the starter to get the prop turning. Increase this value for a greater torque effect, decrease it for a lower torque setting. normalized_starter_torque= 0.3
turbocharged Boolean to indicate if the engine is turbocharged; 0 = FALSE, 1 = TRUE. turbocharged= 0 
turbocharged= 1
max_design_mp If a turbocharger is present, this value indicates the maximum design manifold pressure supplied by the turbocharger (inHg). max_design_mp= 0.0 
max_design_mp= 36.5
min_design_mp If a turbocharger is present, this value indicates the minimum design manifold pressure of the turbocharger (inHg). min_design_mp= 1.0 
min_design_mp= 10
critical_altitude Altitude to which the turbocharger, if present, will provide the maximum design manifold pressure (feet). critical_altitude= 0.0 
critical_altitude= 5000
emergency_boost_type Integer value indicating the emergency boost type available, one of:
0 = None
1 = Water Injection
2 = Methanol/Water Injection
3 = War Emergency Power, (typically used in WWII combat aircraft).
emergency_boost_type= 0
emergency_boost_mp_offset Additional manifold pressure supplied by emergency boost, if available. emergency_boost_mp_offset= 0.000
emergency_boost_gain_offset Multiplier on manifold pressure due to emergency boost. emergency_boost_gain_offset= 0.000
fuel_air_auto_mixture Boolean to indicate if automatic fuel-to-air mixture is available; 0 = FALSE, 1 = TRUE. fuel_air_auto_mixture= 0
auto_ignition Boolean to indicate if automatic ignition is available; 0 = FALSE, 1 = TRUE. auto_ignition= 0
power_scalar Changing this value affects the amount of power delivered by the engine to the propellor shaft. power_scalar = 1.0
bestpowerspecificfuelconsumption Specific fuel consumption at Best Power mixture ratio. BestPowerSpecificFuelConsumption=0.49
magneto_order_left_right_both Sets the order of the magneto switch direction. magneto_order_left_right_both = 1
number_of_magnetos Number of magnetos. number_of_magnetos = 1

[propeller]

The thrust generated by a given propeller is a function of the power delivered through the propeller shaft, rpm, blade angle, airplane speed, and ambient density.

Property
Description
Examples
propeller_type Integer that identifies what type of propeller is on the aircraft, one of:
0 = Constant Speed
1 = Fixed Pitch.
propeller_type= 1 
propeller_type= 0 
propeller_type = 0
propeller_diameter Diameter of propeller blades, tip to tip, in feet. propeller_diameter= 5.000 
propeller_diameter= 6.4 
propeller_diameter = 8.8 
propeller_diameter= 6.3
propeller_blades Integer value indicating the number of blades on the propeller (2, 3 or 4). propeller_blades= 2 
propeller_blades= 3 
propeller_blades = 4 
propeller_blades = 3
propeller_moi Propeller moment of inertia, (slug ft2). propeller_moi= 3.000 
propeller_moi= 6.9 
propeller_moi = 24 
propeller_moi= 5.0
beta_max Maximum blade pitch angle for constant speed prop (degrees). (Not used if fixed pitch.). beta_max= 0 
beta_max= 45.0 
beta_max = 45 
beta_max= 24.0
beta_min Minimum blade pitch angle for constant speed prop (degrees). (Not used if fixed pitch.). beta_min= 0 
beta_min= 15.2 
beta_min = 15.2 
beta_min = 15.6
min_gov_rpm The minimum rpm controlled by the governor for a constant speed prop. min_gov_rpm= 0 
min_gov_rpm= 1100.0 
min_gov_rpm = 25520 
min_gov_rpm= 800
prop_tc Time constant for prop. prop_tc= 0.100 
prop_tc= 0.1 
prop_tc = 0.004 
prop_tc= 0
gear_reduction_ratio The reduction ratio from the engine output rpm to prop rpm. gear_reduction_ratio= 1.000 
gear_reduction_ratio= 1.0 
gear_reduction_ratio = 17.6 
gear_reduction_ratio = 17.4
fixed_pitch_beta Blade pitch angle for fixed pitch prop (degrees). (Not used if constant speed.). fixed_pitch_beta= 28.000 
fixed_pitch_beta= 0.0 
fixed_pitch_beta = 0 
fixed_pitch_beta= 20
low_speed_theory_limit The speed at which low-speed propeller theory gets blended into the high speed propeller theory, (feet/second). low_speed_theory_limit= 80.000 
low_speed_theory_limit= 80.0 
low_speed_theory_limit = 80 
prop_sync_available Boolean to indicate if propeller-sync is available (twin engine aircraft); 0 = FALSE, 1 = TRUE. prop_sync_available= 0 
prop_sync_available= 1 
prop_sync_available = 1 
prop_sync_available = 0
prop_deice_available Boolean to indicate if propeller de-icing is available; 0 = FALSE, 1 = TRUE. prop_deice_available= 0 
prop_deice_available= 1 
prop_deice_available = 1
prop_feathering_available Boolean to indicate if prop feathering is available (constant speed prop only); 0 = FALSE, 1 = TRUE. prop_feathering_available= 0 
prop_feathering_available= 1
prop_auto_feathering_available Boolean to indicate if prop auto-feathering is available (constant speed prop only); 0 = FALSE, 1 = TRUE. prop_auto_feathering_available= 0 
prop_auto_feathering_available= 1
min_rpm_for_feather Minimum rpm at which the prop will feather (if feathering is available). min_rpm_for_feather= 700.0 
min_rpm_for_feather = 700 
min_rpm_for_feather= 0
beta_feather Propeller pitch angle when feathered (degrees). beta_feather= 82.5 
beta_feather = 79.3 
beta_feather= 0
power_absorbed_cf Coefficient of friction power absorbed by propeller. power_absorbed_cf= 0.9 
power_absorbed_cf = 0.9 
power_absorbed_cf= 0
defeathering_accumulators_available Boolean to indicate if de-feathering accumulators are available; 0 = FALSE, 1 = TRUE. defeathering_accumulators_available= 0
prop_reverse_available Specifies the scalar on the calculated propeller reverser effect. A value of 0 will cause no reverse thrust to be available. A value of 1.0 will cause the theoretical normal thrust to be available. Other values will scale the normal calculated value accordingly. prop_reverse_available= 0 
prop_reverse_available = 1
minimum_on_ground_beta Minimum blade pitch angle when the aircraft is on the ground (degrees). minimum_on_ground_beta= 0.000 
minimum_on_ground_beta= 0.0 
minimum_on_ground_beta = 1.0 
minimum_on_ground_beta= 0
minimum_reverse_beta Minimum blade pitch angle when the propeller is in reverse (degrees). minimum_reverse_beta= 0.000 
minimum_reverse_beta= 0.0 
minimum_reverse_beta = -14.0 
minimum_reverse_beta= 0
thrust_scalar Parameter that scales the calculated thrust provided by the propeller. thrust_scalar=1.000 
thrust_scalar = 1.0 
thrust_scalar = 1.0
feathering_switches Boolean indicating if feathering switches are available. 0 = FALSE, 1 = TRUE. Feathering switches, allow the pilot to automatically feather the propeller via a switch, regardless of the propeller lever position. feathering_switches = 1
number_of_propellers The number of propellers driven per engine.
engine_map Set of flags that allows the propellers to be driven by a different engine.
propeller.0
to
propeller.1
This parameter allows for the propeller to be located at the specified offset (longitudinal, lateral and vertical) in feet from the engine that is driving it.

[magneticcompass]

This section defines the magnetic compass characteristics of the aircraft.

 

Property
Description
Examples
compass.0 Set to 1 for a vertical compass (with no dip errors).  Compass.0 = 1

 

[gpws]

This section sepcifies the details of the ground proximity warning system.

 

Property
Description
Examples
max_warning_height The height below which a warning is activated. max_warning_height = 1000
sink_rate_fpm If an aircraft exceeds this rate of descent a warning is activated. sink_rate_fpm = -1500
excessive_sink_rate_fpm If an aircraft exceeds this rate of descent an urgent warning is activated. excessive_sink_rate_fpm = -2000
climbout_sink_rate_fpm If an aircraft starts to descend during takeoff, and exceeds this rate of descent, a warning is activated. climbout_sink_rate_fpm = -100
flap_and_gear_sink_rate_fpm If an aircraft is landing, and exceeds this rate of descent without flaps or gear extended, a warning is activated. flap_and_gear_sink_rate_fpm= -100

 

[cameradefinition.n]

This section shows the camera properties most used by aircraft. An aircraft can have multiple cameradefinition sections, which should be numbered from 0 to n. For a full definition of all the properties that can be set for a camera definition, refer to the Camera Configuration document. All of the properties described in that document can be used in an aircraft camera definition in an aircraft configuration file.


Property
Examples
title Title = "Right Side Window" 
Title = "Right Wing" 
Title = "Right Float" 
Title = "Tail"
guid Guid = {54F54B8A-3EC2-2D4E-8D10-B8F9D0F16ACC} 
Guid = {C690EAFD-223A-42d0-99E0-681ADF93BB59}
description Description = "View of the right wing from the passenger cabin" 
Description = "View from the right wing tip looking at the cockpit" 
Description = "View from the aft end of the right float looking forward" 
Description = "Looking forward from the tip of the vertical stabilizer"
origin Origin = Center 
Origin = Virtual Cockpit
snappbhadjust SnapPbhAdjust = Swivel 
SnapPbhAdjust = None
snappbhreturn SnapPbhReturn = FALSE
panpbhadjust PanPbhAdjust = Swivel 
PanPbhAdjust = None
panpbhreturn PanPbhReturn = FALSE
track Track = None
showaxis ShowAxis = FALSE 
ShowAxis = TRUE
allowzoom AllowZoom = TRUE 
AllowZoom = FALSE
initialzoom InitialZoom = 1.0 
InitialZoom = 0.75 
InitialZoom = .5 
InitialZoom = 0.4
showweather ShowWeather = Yes
initialxyz InitialXyz = 5.5, 0.75, -13 
InitialXyz = 7.5, 0.75, 0 
InitialXyz = 1.5, .5, -3.9 
InitialXyz = 0, 2.0, -3.9
initialpbh InitialPbh = 0, 0, 95 
InitialPbh = 5, 0, 270 
InitialPbh = 0, 0, 0 
InitialPbh = 10, 0, 0
xyzadjust XyzAdjust = TRUE
category Category=Aircraft 
Category = VC
momentumeffect MomentumEffect=TRUE 
MomentumEffect = TRUE
clipmode ClipMode=Minimum
zoompanscalar ZoomPanScalar = 1.0
showlensflare ShowLensFlare=FALSE

[turboprop_engine]

The amount of power generated by an engine and the power required for a propeller to turn through the air determine the increase and decrease of the rpm.  A turboprop engine is really a combination of a turbine engine and a propeller.  The values in this section are included to modify values specific to the turboprop.

Property
Description
Examples
power_scalar Changing this value affects the amount of power delivered by the engine to the propellor shaft. power_scalar = 1.0 
power_scalar = 1.0
maximum_torque Maximum shaft-torque available from the engine (ft-lbs). maximum_torque = 3270 
maximum_torque = 1865 
maximum_torque = 7878
powerspecificfuelconsumption Brake power specific fuel consumption (turboprop only). PowerSpecificFuelConsumption = 0.55

[airspeed_indicators]

This section is used to define the characteristics of the airspeed indicators on the instrument panels.  The list of indicators should be listed in order: 0,1,2,…n.  These characteristics define the calibration between calibrated airspeed and indicated airspeed. 

Property
Description
Examples
airspeed_indicator.0
to
airspeed_indicator.n
The first parameter is a scalar on the calibrated airspeed, and the second is an offset in knots.  The offset is applied first, then the scalar.  The default value for the scalar is 1.0 and the default for the offset is 0.0, thus by default indicated airspeed is equal to calibrated airspeed. airspeed_indicator.0 = 1.183, -24.75 
airspeed_indicator.0 = 1, 0 
airspeed_indicator.0 = 1.3, -24.0

[pressurization]

This section defines the presssurization characteristics of the aircraft.

 

Property
Description
Examples
design_cabin_pressure design_cabin_pressure = 0
max_pressure_differential max_pressure_differential = 0

[variometers]

This section defines the variometers characteristics of the aircraft.

 

Property
Description
Examples
variometer.0 variometer.0=1

[yaw_string]

This section defines the yaw string characteristics of the aircraft.

 

Property
Description
Examples
yaw_string_available yaw_string_available=1

[water ballast system]

This section defines the water ballast system of the aircraft.

 

Property
Description
Examples
tank.0 Front Fuselage. Tank.0 = 7.79, -2.75, 0.0, 0.0, 1
tank.1 Rear Fuselage. Tank.1 = 3.57, -3.28, 0.0, 0.0, 2
tank.2 Left Outboard. Tank.2 = 9.25, -0.60, -10.5, 0.0, 2
tank.3 Left Inboard. Tank.3 = 16.38, -0.66, -4.5, 0.0, 1
tank.4 Right Inboard. Tank.4 = 16.38, -0.66, 4.5, 0.0, 1
tank.5 Right Outboard. Tank.5 = 9.25, -0.60, 10.5, 0.0, 2
numberofreleasevalves Number of release valves. NumberOfReleaseValves = 2
dumprate Gallons per second. DumpRate = 0.18494

[smokesystem]

The section describes how to configure a smoke system for an aircraft. You can set multiple smoke points on an aircraft.

Property
Description
Examples
smoke.0
to
smoke.n
The position relative to datum reference point of the smoke emitter and the smoke effect file name. smoke.0=-10.00, -0.70, 0.0, fx_smoke_w

[folding_wings]

This section describes the folding wing characteristics of the aircraft. Note that these are folding wings used to store an aircraft more compactly when on the ground, or on deck, and not the variable sweep wings used on some supersonic aircraft. Variable sweep wings are not supported.

 

Property
Description
Examples
wing_fold_system_type

One of:

0: None (the default)

1: Manual

2: Pneumatic

3: Electrical

4: Hydraulic

wing_fold_system_type = 1 

 

wing_fold_system_type = 4

fold_rates Two values (for left and right), giving the percentage per second, to fully extend and retract.

fold_rates = 0.25,0.20 

 

fold_rates = 0.12,0.11


[anemometers]

This section describes the positions of the anemometers in the aircraft.

 

Property
Description
Examples
anemometer.0
to
anemometer.n
Position of the anemometer relative to datum reference point. anemometer.0 = -10.0, 0.0, 2.7 
anemometer.0 = 9.6, 0.0, -2.2

[realismconstants]

This section describes some realism constraints, dealing in particular with early aircraft. The values entered are used to make an aircraft more stable.

 

Property
Description
Examples
rollmomentfrombeta Scalar and offset applied to the roll moment from beta. RollMomentFromBeta = -0.5, 0
rollmomentfromailerons Scale and offset applied to the roll moment from the ailerons. RollMomentFromAilerons = 1.5, 0
pitchmomentzeroalpha Scale and offset applied to the zero angle of attack. PitchMomentZeroAlpha = 1.0, 0.002



Helicopter Specific Sections (Work in Progress)

The following sections are specific to helicopters only. These sections are a work in progress.

Additional Helicopter Sections

[sling.n]

There can be multiple sling positions on an aircraft, each with its own set of the following properties.

 

Property
Description
Examples
hoist_extend_rate Feet per second. hoist_extend_rate = 5
hoist_retract_rate Feet per second. hoist_retract_rate = -5
position Position relative to datum reference point. position = -34.7, 6.7, 7.0
max_stretch Max stretch distance at ultimate load. max_stretch = 2.0
damping_ratio 0 for no damping to 1.0 for critically damped. damping_ratio = 0.6
rated_load Characteristics tension of cable in pounds. rated_load = 600
ultimate_load Breaking force in pounds. This cannot exceed 10,000lb. ultimate_load = 2250
tolerance_angle Angle, in degrees, used to determine lateral breaking force limit. tolerance_angle=45
auto_pickup_range Max Range, in feet, for auto-pickup. auto_pickup_range = 8
auto_pickup_max_speed Maximum speed (feet per second) for auto-pickup. auto_pickup_max_speed = 8.5
hoist_payload_station Payload station in which the hoist will load in and out of. 1 is first station. hoist_payload_station = 4
hoist_door Door associated with hoist. Must be open for use. hoist_door=1

[turboshaft_engine]

A turboshaft engine on a helicopter is very similar to a turboprop engine on a fixed wing aircraft.

 

Property
Description
Examples
power_scalar Scalar on Turboprop power. power_scalar = 1.0
maximum_torque Maximum torque available (ft-lbs). maximum_torque = 1335
powerspecificfuelconsumption Brake power specific fuel consumption. PowerSpecificFuelConsumption = 0.55

 

Standard Helicopter Sections

[helicopter]

Property
Description
Examples
lift_aero_center The longitudinal position, in feet, from the datum of the helicopter that represents the vertical aerodynamic center. lift_aero_center = -34.0
reference_length The length of the helicopter, in feet. reference_length = 21.58
reference_frontal_area The cross section area of the fuselage, in feet squared, as viewed from head on to the helicopter. reference_frontal_area = 17.7
reference_side_area Total side area of the fuselage, in feet squared, as viewed from directly abeam of the helicopter. reference_side_area = 44.5
side_aero_center The longitudinal position, in feet, from the datum of the helicopter that represents the lateral aerodynamic center. side_aero_center = -12.5
right_trim_scalar Scalar on the effect of the trim that counters dissymmetry of lift.  The trim normally induces a roll moment to the right, but a negative value will create a left moment. right_trim_scalar = 1.0
correlator_available This flag determines if a collective/throttle correlator is configured on the helicopter. correlator_available = 1
governed_pct_rpm_ref Defines the percent rpm that the governor attempts to maintain.  1.0 = 100% of “rated” rpm, although a few percent above that is normal. governed_pct_rpm_ref = 1.04
governor_pid

Proportional – Integral – Derivative (PID) feedback controller that works to maintain the reference rpm.  The series of numbers are:

  1. proportional controller constant
  2. integral controller constant
  3. derivative controller constant
  4. max rpm error (where 1.0 = 100%) in which the integrator portion is active
  5. max rpm error (where 1.0 = 100%) in which the derivative portion is active
governor_pid = 0.4, 0, 0.1, 0, 0.2
rotor_brake_scalar Scalar on the effect of the rotor brake. rotor_brake_scalar = 1.0
torque_scalar Scalar on the effect that the rotor has on the yawing moment of the helicopter. torque_scalar = 1.0
cyclic_roll_control_scalar Scalar on the amount of roll control authority from lateral movement of the cyclic. cyclic_roll_control_scalar =1.0
cyclic_pitch_control_scalar Scalar on the amount of pitch control authority from fore/aft movement of the cyclic. cyclic_pitch_control_scalar =1.0
pedal_control_scalar Scalar on the amount of yaw control authority from movement of the anti-torque pedals. pedal_control_scalar =1.0
collective_on_rotor_torque_scalar Scalar on the amount of torque exerted on the rotor system due to the collective pitch of the rotor blades.  Increasing this constant will result in the rotor rpm tending to decelerate more dramatically as collective is increased. collective_on_rotor_torque_scalar = 1.0

[fuselage_aerodynamics]

Property
Description
Examples
drag_force_cf Coefficient of longitudinal drag. drag_force_cf = 0.55
side_drag_force_cf Coefficient of lateral drag. side_drag_force_cf = 10.0
pitch_damp_cf Pitch damping coefficient (resistance to pitch velocity). pitch_damp_cf = -2.0
roll_damp_cf Roll damping coefficient (resistance to roll velocity). roll_damp_cf = -2.0
yaw_damp_cf Yaw damping coefficient (resistance to yaw velocity). yaw_damp_cf = -0.1
yaw_stability_cf Yaw stability coefficient. This is the weathervane effect. yaw_stability_cf = 0.27

[mainrotor]

Property
Description
Examples
static_pitch_angle When the stick is centered, the pitch angle of the rotor disk, in degrees. static_pitch_angle = 2
static_bank_angle When the stick is centered, the bank angle of the rotor disk, in degrees. static_bank_angle = 0
position Position relative to datum reference point. This position should be the center of the main rotor. Position = -8.5, 0, 4.91
radius The radius of the rotor, in feet. Radius = 12.583
max_disc_angle The maximum absolute deflection angle up or down, in degrees, that the rotor disc can move with the cyclic. max_disc_angle = 5.0
ratedrpm The rated rpm value for the main rotor. RatedRpm = 510
number_of_blades The number of blades in the rotor. Number_of_blades = 2
weight_per_blade Approximate weight, in pounds, of each rotor blade. Weight_per_blade = 26.0
weight_to_moi_factor The constant used in calculating the moment of inertia of the rotor disc. The MOI algorithm is a function of the number of blades, their weight, and this constant. Increasing this constant will increase the inertia of the disc. Weight_to_moi_factor = 0.58
inflow_vel_reference The reference inflow velocity of the air mass moving through the rotor disc. Increasing this value will result in more thrust being generated. inflow_vel_reference = 34.0

[secondaryrotor]

Property
Description
Examples
position Position relative to datum reference point. This position should be the center of the secondary rotor. Position = -67.6, -3.7, 11.6 
Position = -22.8, -0.74, 1.8
tailrotor This flag, if set to 1, configures the secondary rotor as a tail rotor, or anti-torque. TailRotor = 1
radius The radius of the rotor, in feet. Radius = 6.56 
Radius = 1.75

 


Model, Sound, Texture and Panel Files

The panel.cfg File

The panel.cfg file is located in an aircraft’s Panel folder, and defines the characteristics of the aircraft’s cockpit, including window settings, view settings, and gauges.

The model.cfg File

The model.cfg file is located in an aircraft’s Model folder and specifies which visual models (.mdl files) represent the aircraft exterior and interior. When designing new models, it is required that the model file be separated into the two parts.

[models]

 

Property
Description
Examples
normal External 3D model used under normal circumstances. normal=Diamond_DA42
interior Internal, virtual cockpit, model. interior=Diamond_DA42_interior

The model.cfg file also contains references to character setups and animations. The following is an example of a model.cfg file.


Property
Description
Examples
 pilot_BaseThe location of the pilot animation relative to the model.cfg file. Usually the file will be named Anim_Pilot_AircraftName.mdl. pilot_Base=..\..\..\Characters\animations\Anim_Pilot_PA34.MDL
 pilot_BodyThe location of the pilot body relative to the model.cfg file. The body is all parts of the pilot which are not flesh, e.g clothing. Usually the file will be named ou_something.mdl. pilot_Body=..\..\..\Characters\meshes\ou_MC1.mdl
 pilot_HeadThe location of the pilot head relative to the model.cfg file. The head contains all parts of the pilot which are flesh, usually head and hands. Usually the file will be named hh_something.mdl. pilot_Head=..\..\..\Characters\meshes\hh_MC1.mdl
 capacityThe number of passengers that the aircraft can have. This is not including the pilot. Each passenger (and the pilot) must have a character socket within the aircraft model. The naming scheme for character sockets is 1A, 1B, 1C etc for the first row, 2A, 2B, 2C etc for the next row from front to back in the aircraft. capacity=5
 passengerXBaseWhere X is the index of the passenger (up to the passenger capacity and number of character slots) this is the location of the passenger animation relative to the model.cfg file. Usually named Anim_Loop_Something.mdl. passenger1Base=..\..\..\Characters\animations\Anim_Loop_Copilot_A.MDL
 passengerXBodyWhere X is the index of the passenger (up to the passenger capacity and number of character slots) this is the location of the passenger body relative to the model.cfg file. As with the pilot the body of the passenger contains the parts of the passenger which are not flesh. Usually named ou_something.mdl. passenger1Body=..\..\..\Characters\meshes\ou_FA1.mdl
 passengerXHeadWhere X is the index of the passenger (up to the passenger capacity and number of character slots) this is the location of the passenger head relative to the model.cfg file. As with the pilot the head of the passenger contains the parts of the passenger which are flesh. Usually named hh_something. passenger1Head=..\..\..\Characters\meshes\hh_FA1.mdl
 passengerXPropYWhere X is the index of the passenger (up to the passenger capacity and number of character slots) and Y is the index of the prop (a passenger can have multiple props) this is the location of a passenger prop relative to the model.cfg file. These are items which do not fit under the umbrella of body/outfit or head/hands. Usually named prop_something.mdl. passenger1Prop1=..\..\..\Characters\meshes\prop_booklet.MDL
 passenger1Prop2=..\..\..\Characters\meshes\prop_headset.MDL

The pilot and passenger MDL locations are optional. If no pilots or passengers are required for the aircraft or would not fit thematically (e.g for an unmanned aircraft) then they can be omitted and no pilots or characters should show in the aircraft. Note that for each pilot or passenger listed in the model.cfg there must be a matching character slot in the aircraft.  

The sound.cfg File

The sound.cfg file is located in an aircraft’s Sound folder, and defines the sounds to use for that aircraft (such as the sound of the engine at various speeds, the sound of the landing gear going down, and so on). Refer to the Sound Configuration files document for more details.

The Texture Folder

An aircraft’s textures are defined by the .bmp files in the aircraft’s Texture folder, and are projected onto the aircraft’s parts as specified in the aircraft’s visual model (.mdl) file, located in the Model folder. Texture file names must correspond to the texture files that are referenced in the .mdl file. If the file names don't correspond, the textures will not be rendered.
Texture files are mipmapped.  A mipmapped texture consists of a sequence of images, each of which is a progressively lower resolution, prefiltered representation of the same image. Mipmapping is a computationally low-cost way of improving the quality of rendered textures. Each prefiltered image, or level, in the mipmap is a power of two smaller than the previous level. A high-resolution level is used for objects that are close to the viewer. Lower-resolution levels are used as the object moves farther away.
To edit a mipmapped texture, you’ll need to use Image Tool, an image editing application included with the SDK. Be sure to save a copy of the original file before attempting to modify it. A texture can also be edited using a simple graphics application such as Paint, though it will be saved as a standard .bmp file instead of a mipmapped .bmp. Flight Sim World will automatically generate the mipmaps for the texture, although these mipmaps may not be of as high a quality as mipmaps created using ImageTool.

Notes on using Aliasing

Aliasing allows multiple aircraft, or other objects such as vehicles or boats, to use the same files (panels, flight models, sounds, etc.). This saves disk space and makes file organization more efficient. You can alias an object ’s panel.cfg, model.cfg, and sound.cfg files from any other object. Whereas configuration sets allow objects within a single container to share components, aliasing allows objects in different containers to share components. To alias a panel.cfg, model.cfg, or sound.cfg file, simply change the aliasing object's configuration file to read:

 

[fltsim]
alias=objectname\panel
or
[fltsim]
alias=objectname\model
or
[fltsim]
alias=objectname\sound


Aliased files are searched for in the following order:

  1. Relative path from the object type folder (one of: Airplanes, Animals, Boats, GroundVehicles, Misc or Rotorcraft).
  2. Relative path from the Flight Sim World  folder.
An example

Let’s say you’ve imported a Diamond DA42 aircraft variant into the simulation, but want to use the G1000 panel from the existing Diamond DA42 when flying it. Instead of duplicating all the existing DA42 panel files (Panel.cfg and .bmps) and putting them in the new DA42 aircraft container, you can alias to them in their existing location from the DA42 panel.cfg file. Just change the new DA42 panel.cfg file to read:


[fltsim]
alias=DA42\panel


The new DA42 aircraft would then use the DA42 panel.cfg file (and the associated .bmps). The syntax for aliasing model.cfg and sound.cfg files is identical.